Thursday, March 24, 2011

Types of farms



             A business producing tree fruits or nuts is called an orchard; a vineyard produces grapes. The stable is used for operations principally involved in the training of horses. Stud and commercial farms breed and produce other animals and livestock. A farm that is primarily used for the production of milk and dairy is a dairy farm. A market garden or truck farm is a farm that grows vegetables, but little or no grain. Additional specialty farms include fish farms, which raise fish in captivity as a food source, and tree farms, which grow trees for sale for transplant, lumber, or decorative use. A plantation is usually a large farm or estate, on which cotton, tobacco, coffee or sugar cane, are cultivated, usually by resident laborers.


Types of farming
  1. Collective farming
  2. Factory farming
  3. Intensive farming
  4. Protected culture farming
  5. Organic farming
  6. Vertical farming
  7. Fell farming

Collective farming

             Collective farming and communal farming are types of agricultural production in which the holdings of several farmers are run as a joint enterprise. This type of collective is essentially an agricultural production cooperative in which members-owners engage jointly in farming activities.Typical examples of collective farms are the kolkhozy that dominated Soviet agriculture between 1930 and 1992 and the Israeli kibbutzim. Both are collective farms based on common ownership of resources and on pooling of labor and income in accordance with the theoretical principles of cooperative organizations. They are radically different, however, in the application of the cooperative principles of freedom of choice and democratic rule.The creation of kolkhozy in the Soviet Union during the country-wide collectivization campaign of 1928-1933 was an example of forced collectivization, whereas the kibbutzim in Israel were traditionally created through voluntary collectivization and were governed as democratic entities. The element of forced or state-sponsored collectivization that was present in many countries during the 20th century led to the impression that collective farms operate under the supervision of the state, but this is not universally true, as shown by the counter-example of the Israeli kibbutz.

Factory farming
       Factory farming is a term referring to the process of raising livestock in confinement at high stocking density, where a farm operates as a factory — a practice typical in industrial farming by agribusinesses.The main product of this industry is meat, milk and eggs for human consumption. The term is often used in a pejorative sense, criticising large scale farming processes which confine animals.Confinement at high stocking density is one part of a systematic effort to produce the highest output at the lowest cost by relying on economies of scale, modern machinery, biotechnology, and global trade. Confinement at high stocking density requires antibiotics and pesticides to mitigate the spread of disease and pestilence exacerbated by these crowded living conditions. In addition, antibiotics are used to stimulate livestock growth by killing intestinal bacteria. There are differences in the way factory farming techniques are practiced around the world. There is a continuing debate over the benefits and risks of factory farming. The issues include the efficiency of food production; animal welfare; whether it is essential for feeding the growing global human population; the environmental impact and the health risks.

 Intensive farming

Intensive farming or intensive agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by the high inputs of capital, labour, or heavy usage of technologies such as pesticides and chemical fertilizers relative to land area.This is in contrast to many sorts of sustainable agriculture such as organic farming or extensive agriculture, which involve a relatively low input of labour, relative to the area of land farmed, and which focus on maintaining long-term ecological health of farmland, so that it can be farmed indefinitely.Modern day forms of intensive crop based agriculture involve the use of mechanical ploughing, chemical fertilizers, plant growth regulators and/or pesticides. It is associated with the increasing use of agricultural mechanization, which have enabled a substantial increase in production, yet have also dramatically increased environmental pollution by increasing erosion and poisoning water with agricultural chemicals.Intensive animal farming practices can involve very large numbers of animals raised on limited land which require large amounts of food, water and medical inputs . Very large or confined indoor intensive livestock operations  are often referred to as Factory farming and are criticised by opponents for the low level of animal welfare standards and associated pollution and health issues.

Protected culture farming
 
Organic farming

                  Organic farming is the form of agriculture that relies on techniques such as crop rotation, green manure, compost and biological pest control to maintain soil productivity and control pests on a farm. Organic farming excludes or strictly limits the use of manufactured fertilizers, pesticides, plant growth regulators such as hormones, livestock antibiotics, food additives, and genetically modified organisms.Organic agricultural methods are internationally regulated and legally enforced by many nations, based in large part on the standards set by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), an international umbrella organization for organic farming organizations established in 1972. IFOAM defines the overarching goal of organic farming as:
"Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved.."—International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements
Since 1990, the market for organic products has grown from nothing, reaching $55 billion in 2009 according to Organic Monitor . This demand has driven a similar increase in organically managed farmland. Approximately 37,000,000 hectares  worldwide are now farmed organically, representing approximately 0.9 percent of total world farmland

 Vertical farming


         Vertical farming is a concept that argues that it is economically and environmentally viable to cultivate plant or animal life within skyscrapers.

This generally falls within two categories.

1) The first is that of Dr. Dickson Despommier, an American ecologist. Despommier argues that 'vertical farming' is legitimate due to environmental reasons. He purports that the cultivation of plant and animal life within skyscrapers will produce less embedded energy and toxicity than plant and animal life produced on natural landscapes. He claims that natural landscapes are too toxic for natural, agricultural production. This is despite the ecological and evironmental costs of extracting materials to build skyscrapers for the simple purpose of agricultural production. Vertical farming according to Despommier thus discounts the value of natural landscape in exchange for the idea of 'skyscraper as spaceship'. Plant and animal life are mass produced within hermetically sealed, artificial environments that have little to do with the outside world. In this sense, they could be built anywhere regardless of the context. This is not advantageous to energy consumption as the internal environment must be maintained to sustain life within the skyscraper.Dickson Despommier's 'The Vertical Farm', promotes the mass cultivation of plant and animal life for commercial purposes in Skyscrapers. This concept emerged in 1999 at Columbia University by American ecologist Dickson Despommier. Using advanced greenhouse technology such as hydroponics and aeroponics, these Skyscrapers could theoretically produce fish, poultry, fruit and vegetables. While the concept of stacked agricultural production is not new, a commercial high-rise farm such as 'The Vertical Farm' has never been built.
Proponents argue that, by allowing traditional outdoor farms to revert to a natural state and reducing the energy costs needed to transport foods to consumers, vertical farms could significantly alleviate climate change produced by excess atmospheric carbon. Critics have noted that the costs of the additional energy needed for artificial lighting, heating and other vertical farming operations would outweigh the benefit of the building’s close proximity to the areas of consumption.
2) The second category of vertical farming falls under the concepts proposed and built by the architect Ken Yeang developed at least ten years before Despommier. Yeang proposes that instead of hermetically sealed mass produced agriculture that plant life should be cultivated within open air, mixed-use skyscrapers for climate control and consumption (i.e. a personal or communal planting space as per the needs of the individual). This version of vertical farming is based upon personal or community use rather than the wholesale production and distribution plant and animal life that aspires to feed an entire city. It thus requires less of an initial investment than Despommier's 'The Vertical Farm'. However, neither Despommier nor Yeang are the conceptual 'originators', as seen in the following section

Fell farming

      Fell farming is the farming of fells, i.e. areas of uncultivated high ground used as common grazing. It is a term commonly used in Northern England, especially in the Lake District and the Pennine Dales. Elsewhere, the terms hill farming or pastoral farming are more commonly used.

Farming

                The term farming covers a wide spectrum of agricultural production work. At one end of this spectrum is the subsistence farmer, who farms a small area with limited resource inputs, and produces only enough food to meet the needs of his family. At the other end is commercial intensive agriculture, including industrial agriculture. Such farming involves large fields and/or numbers of animals, large resource inputs , and a high level of mechanization. These operations generally attempt to maximize financial income from grain, produce, or livestock.

Traditionally, the goal of farming was to work collectively as a community to grow and harvest crops that could be grown in mass such as wheat, corn, squash, and other cash crops. Centuries later these same farmers took charge of livestock, and began growing food exclusively for the feeding of livestock as well as for the community. With the growth of actual civilization the farmer's focus changed from basic survival to that of financial gain. In smaller towns on the outset of civilization the farmer did retain the need to grow their own food, but the financially minded farmer was largely spreading. With the Renaissance came the plantation, a "Farm" primarily worked by others primarily for the gain of the plantation's owner. Then came a new age of industry where the farm could be manned by fewer men and big machines. This meant a complete revolution for farming which will be discussed below.www

History

The practice of agriculture first began around 8000 BC in the Fertile Crescent of Mesopotamia

The development of farming and farms was an important component in establishing towns. Once people have moved from hunting and/or gathering and from simple horticulture to active farming, social arrangements of roads, distribution, collection, and marketing can evolve. With the exception of plantations and colonial farms, farm sizes tend to be small in newly settled lands and expand as transportation and markets become sophisticated.

Wednesday, March 23, 2011

Wild honey harvesting

Collecting honey from wild bee colonies is one of the most ancient human activities and is still practiced by aboriginal societies in parts of Africa, Asia, Australia, and South America. Some of the earliest evidence of gathering honey from wild colonies is from rockpanting, dating to around 13,000 bce. Gathering honey from wild bee colonies is usually done by subduing the bees with smoke and breaking open the tree or rocks where the colony is located, often resulting in the physical destruction of the nest location.

introduction to bee keeping

Beekeeping is the maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans. A beekeeper keeps bees in order to collect honey and beeswax, to pollinate crops, or to produce bees for sale to other beekeepers. A location where bees are kept is called an apiary or "bee yard".

Major cultivated species of wheat

 Bread wheat – A hexaploid species that is the most widely cultivated in the world.


Durum – The only tetraploid form of wheat widely used today, and the second most widely cultivated wheat.


Einkorn – A diploid species with wild and cultivated variants. Domesticated at the same time as emmer wheat, but never reached the same importance

Emmer  – A tetraploid species, cultivated in ancient times but no longer in widespread use.

Spelt  – Another hexaploid species cultivated in limited quantities.
Classes used in the United States are
  • Durum – Very hard, translucent, light-colored grain used to make semolina flour for pasta.
  • Hard Red Spring – Hard, brownish, high-protein wheat used for bread and hard baked goods. Bread Flour and high-gluten flours are commonly made from hard red spring wheat.

  • Hard Red Winter – Hard, brownish, mellow high-protein wheat used for bread, hard baked goods and as an adjunct in other flours to increase protein in pastry flour for pie crusts. Some brands of unbleached all-purpose flours are commonly made from hard red winter wheat alone.  One variety is known as "turkey red wheat", and was brought to Kansas by menonite immigrants from Russia.

  • Soft Red Winter – Soft, low-protein wheat used for cakes, pie crusts, biscuits, and muffins. Cake flour, pastry flour, and some self-rising flours with backing powder and salt added, for example, are made from soft red winter wheat.

  • Hard White – Hard, light-colored, opaque, chalky, medium-protein wheat planted in dry, temperate areas. Used for bread and brewing.
  •  
  • Soft White – Soft, light-colored, very low protein wheat grown in temperate moist areas. Used for pie crusts and pastry. Pastry flour, for example, is sometimes made from soft white winter wheat.

Genetics

Wheat genetics is more complicated than that of most other domesticated species. Some wheat species are diploid, with two sets of chromosomes, but many are stable polyploid, with four sets of chromosomes  or six

  • Eionkron wheat is diploid .
  • Most tetraploid wheats are derived from wild emmer, T. dicoccoides. Wild emmer is itself the result of a hybridization between two diploid wild grasses, T. urartu and a wild goatgrass such as Aegilops searsii . The unknown grass has never been identified among now surviving wild grasses, but the closest living relative is Aegilops speltoides.The hybridization that formed wild emmer  occurred in the wild, long before domestication, and was driven by natural selection.
  • Hexaploid wheats evolved in farmers' fields. Either domesticated emmer or durum wheat hybridized with yet another wild diploid grass  to make the  wheats, spelth wheat and bread wheah These have three sets of paired chromosomes, three times as many as in diploid wheat.
The presence of certain versions of wheat genes has been important for crop yields. Apart from mutant versions of genes selected in antiquity during domestication, there has been more recent deliberate selection of alleles that affect growth characteristics. Genes for the 'dwarfing' trait, first used by japanes breed widingto produce short-stalked wheat, have had a huge effect on wheat yields world-wide, and were major factors in the success of the green revulation in Mexico and Asia. Dwarfing genes enable the carbon that is fixed in the plant during photosynthesis to be diverted towards seed production, and they also help prevent the problem of lodging. 'Lodging' occurs when a ear stalk falls over in the wind and rots on the ground, and heavy nitrogenous fertilization of wheat makes the grass grow taller and become more susceptible to this problem. By 1997, 81% of the developing world's wheat acreage was planted to semi-dwarf wheats, giving both increased yields and better response to nitrogenous fertilizer.

Wild grasses in the genus Triticum and related genera, and grasses such as rye have been a source of many disease-resistance traits for cultivated wheat breeding since the 1930s


Heterosis, or hybrid vigor , occurs in common  wheat, but it is difficult to produce seed of hybrid cultivars on a commercial scale because wheat flowers are complete and normally self polinate. Commercial hybrid wheat seed has been produced using chemical hybridizing agents; these chemicals selectively interfere with pollen development, or naturally occurring cytoplasmic male sterility systems. Hybrid wheat has been a limited commercial success in Europe , the USA and South Africa F1 hybrid wheat cultivars should not be confused with the standard method of breeding inbred wheat cultivars by crossing two lines using hand emasculation, then selfing or inbreeding the progeny many  generations before release selections are identified to be released as a variety or cultivar. made by crossing the wild goatgrass wheat ancestor Aegilops tauschii and various durum wheats are now being deployed, and these increase the genetic diversity of cultivated wheats.

stomata are involved in both uptake of carbon dioxide gas from the atmosphere and water vapor losses from the leaf due to water transpiration. Basic physiological investigation of these gas exchange processes has yielded valuable carbon  based methods that are used for breeding wheat varieties with improved water-use efficiency. These varieties can improve crop productivity in rain-fed dry-land wheat farms.




In 2010, a team of scientists announced they had decoded the wheat genome for the first time This announcement was widely misreported as representing a finished genome sequence. In fact, sequence data was produced which allows the identification of wheat genes, but the data was not assembled to represent the map of the genome.

Farming techniques

Technological advances in soil preparation and seed placement at planting time, use of crop rotation and fertilizers to improve plant growth, and advances in harvesting methods have all combined to promote wheat as a viable crop. Agricultural cultivation using horse coller leveraged plows  was one of the first innovations that increased productivity. Much later, when the use of seed drills replaced broadcasting sowing of seed in the 18th century, another great increase in productivity occurred. Yields of wheat per unit area increased as methods of crop rotation were applied to long cultivated land, and the use of fertilizer became widespread. Improved agricultural husbandry has more recently included threshing machines and reaping machines, tractor-drawn cultivators and planters, and better varieties . Great expansions of wheat production occurred as new arable land was farmed in the Americas and Australia in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Tilapia fish farming



Tilapia is the fifth most important fish in fish farming, with production reaching 1,505,804 metric tons in 2000.Because of their large size, rapid growth, and palatability, tilapiine cichlid are the focus of major farming efforts, specifically various species  and Tilapia, collectively known colloquially as tilapias.

Like other large fish, they are a good source of protein and popular among artisanal and commercial fisheries. Most such fisheries were originally found in Africa, but outdoor fish farms in tropical countries such as, the plipine, and indonesia are underway in freshwater lakes. In temperture zonelocalities, tilapiine farming operations require energy to warm the water to tropical temperatures. One method uses waste heat from factories and powerstation.

China is the largest Tilapia producer in the world, seconded by Egypt
Commercially grown tilapia are almost exclusively male. Cultivators use hormones such as testosterone to reverse the sex of newly spawned females. Because tilapia are prolific breeders, the presence of female tilapia results in rapidly increasing populations of small fish, rather than a stable population of harvest-size animals.
tilapia fish pond


Whole tilapia fish can be processed into skinless, boneless  fillets: the yield is from 30 percent to 37 percent, depending on fillet size and final trim.The use of tilapia in the commercial food industry has led to the virtual extinction of genetically pure bloodlines. Most wild tilapia today are hybrids of several species.

Increasing stocking densities places increasing demands on the production system. Additional energy inputs in the form of labor, water exchange, aeration and feeds are all required to sustain the intensive system. As pond production intensifies and feed rates increase, supplemental aeration and some water exchange are required to maintain good water quality. For densities above 1.5-kg per square meter, aeration is usually required. There is a point where the incremental returns are not worthy of the additional inputs and risks. Increasing the intensity of the system does not necessarily reflect an increase in profitability.

All tilapia production systems must provide a suitable environment to promote the growth of the aquatic crop. Critical environmental parameters include the concentrations of dissolved oxygen, un-ionized ammonia nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, and carbon dioxide in the water. Other important parameters include nitrate concentration, pH, and alkalinity levels within the system. To produce tilapia in a cost effective manner, production systems must be capable of maintaining proper levels of these water quality variables during periods of rapid fish growth. To provide for such growth, tilapia are fed high protein pelleted diets at rates ranging from 1.0% to 30% of their body weight per day depending upon their size and species.

Numerous options for holding broodfish, fry, fingerlings, juveniles, sub-adult and adult tilapias are available to the prospective farmer. The options include ponds, tanks, raceways, hapas and cages. Tanks and raceways involve considerably greater expense to construct but offer greater control. They are usually used in intensive and super-intensive culture of tilapias. Ponds are much cheaper to construct and allow management to stimulate natural productivity more readily. The major drawback of pond culture of tilapias is the greater risk of uncontrolled reproduction, which will occur if certain measures are not taken to minimize this possibility. Ponds are used in extensive, semi-intensive and intensive tilapia production. Pond culture is by far the most common method being employed throughout Latin America because it is the cheapest method and also is one of the best.

Ponds are the traditional and inexpensive way to hold spawning populations of broodfish. In some parts of the world, the pond system has been made more efficient through the use of cages or net enclosures (hapas). Basically, the hapas are fine mesh net enclosures that are about 40 square meters in size and arranged into units within a larger pond. This segregates the pond into more easily managed units. On a per unit area basis, tanks are the most efficient method of collecting and raising fry, followed by hapas and simple ponds.

In aquaculture, no two situations are alike. Each project must be carefully crafted to meet the expectations of the owners, while giving diligent consideration to the limitations and strengths inherent in the proposed venture.

Marketing the Product

The total aquaculture production of tilapia was reported to be 1,265,800 tons in 2000. International trade is growing rapidly, especially between Central American producers (Costa Rica, Ecuador and Honduras) and the United States, and between Asian producers (Taiwan, China, Indonesia and Thailand) and the United States and Japan. There is also modest trade between Jamaica and the United Kingdom. The largest exporter, Taiwan, supplies Japan with high-quality tilapia fillets for the sashimi market, and ships frozen tilapia to the United States market (40,000 tons in 2001). Taiwan exports about 70 percent of its domestic tilapia production. Thailand and Indonesia export less than 5 percent of their production.


Medicinal uses

It may help Benign prostatic hyperplasia
In rats, Virgin coconut oil reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, LDL, and VLDL cholesterol levels and increased HDL cholesterol in serum and tissues.
The hexane fraction of coconut peel may contain novel anticancer compounds
Young coconut juice has estrogen-like characteristics.
Coconut milk offered stronger protection on indomethacin-induced ulceration than coconut water in rats.
Coconut water has been used as an emergency short-term intravenous hydration fluid. This is possible because the coconut water has a high level of sugar and other salts that makes it possible to be used in the bloodstream, much like the modern lactated ringer solution or a dextrose/water solution ..

plant


Fruit
botanicaly the coconut fruit is a drupe, not a true nut. The exocarp and mesocarp make up the husk of the coconut. Coconuts sold in the shops of non-tropical countries often have had the exocarp  removed. The mesocarp or "shell" thus exposed is the hardest part of the coconut, and is composed of fiber called coir which have many traditional and commercial uses. The shell has three germination pores  or eyes that are clearly visible on its outside surface once the husk is removed

 Seed

Within the shell is a single seed. When the seed germinates, the root  of its embroy pushes out through one of the eyes of the shell. The outermost layer of the seed, the testa, adheres to the inside of the shell. In a mature coconut, a thick albuminous endosperm adheres to the inside of the testa. This endosperm or meat is the white and fleshy edible part of the coconut. Coconuts sold with a small portion of the husk cut away are immature, and contain coconut water rather than meat.

Although coconut meat contains less fat than many oilseeds and nuts such as almonds, it is noted for its high amount of medium-chain About 90% of the fat found in coconut meat is saturated, a proportion exceeding that of foods such as lard, butter, and t. There has been some debate as to whether or not the saturated fat in coconuts is less unhealthy than other forms of saturated fat. Like most nut meats, coconut meat contains less sugar and more protin than popular fruits such as bananas, apples and oranges. It is relatively high in mineral such as iron and zinc.

The endosperm surrounds a hollow interior space, filled with air and often a liquid refered to as coconut water. Young coconuts used for coconut water are called tender coconuts: when the coconut is still green, the endosperm inside is thin and tender, and is often eaten as a snack, but the main reason to pick the fruit at this stage is to drink its water. The water of a tender coconut is liquid endosperm. It is sweet  with an aerated feel when cut fresh. Depending on its size a tender contains 300 to 1,000 ml of coconut water.

The meat in a young coconut is softer and more gelatinous than a mature coconut, so much so, that it is sometimes known as coconut jelly. When the coconut has ripened and the outer husk has turned brown, a few months later, it will fall from the palm of its own accord. At that time the endosperm has thickened and hardened, while the coconut water has become somewhat bitter.

When the coconut fruit is still green, the husk is very hard, but green coconuts only fall if they have been attacked by molds, etc. By the time the coconut naturally falls, the husk has become brown, the coir has become drier and softer, and the coconut is less likely to cause damage when it drops, although there have been instances of coconuts falling from palms and injuring people, and claims of some fatalities. This was the subject of a paper published in 1984 that won the ig nobel priges in 2001. Falling coconut deaths are often used as a comparison to shark attacks; the claim is often made that a person is more likely to be killed by a falling coconut than by a shark, yet, there is no evidence of people ever being killed in this manner.


When viewed on end, the endocarp and germination pores give the fruit the appearance of a coco , a Portuguese word for a scary witch from Portuguese folklore, that used to be represented as a carved vegetable lantern, hence the name of the fruit. The specific name nucifera is Latin for nut-bearing.
A small number of writings about coconut mention the existence of the This is generally considered a hoax. Professor Armstrong, of palomar college, says "most eyewitness records of coconut pearls cited in the literature are secondhand accounts that were not observed by the authors of these articles. There are a few firsthand, published accounts of pearls observed inside coconuts, but these have been shown to be fraudulent."

india

Traditional areas of coconut cultivation in India are the states of Kerala,Tamil Nadu, Karnataka,Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal, Pondicherry, Maharashtra and Islands of Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar.

kerala is the largest coconut growing state in India, and is famous for the largest number of coconut trees in India. They are also famous for the coconut-based products like tender cocunt water, copra, cocunt oil, coconut cake, coconut toddy, coconut shell-based products, coconut wood-based products, coconut leaves, and coir pith.
Four southern states put together account for 92% of the total production in the country (Kerala 45.22%, Tamil Nadu 26.56%, Karnataka 10.85%, Andhra Pradesh 8.93% and other states 8.44%).
Coconut is cultivated mainly in the following Indian States
  • Kerala (All India Production 45%)
  • Tamil Nadu (All India Production 27%)
  • Karnataka (All India Production 11%)
  • Andhra pradesh (All India Production 9%)
  • Other States like Goa, Maharashtra, Orissa and West Bengal. In the North eastern states like Tripura and Assam also coconut cultivation exist

List of coconut palm diseases

# 1 Bacterial diseases
# 2 Fungal diseases
# 3 Virus and viroid diseases
# 4 Phytoplasmal diseases
# 5 Miscellaneous diseases and disorders


Erwinia is a genus of enterbacteriacea bacteria containing mostly plant pathoginic species which was named for the first phytobacteriologist, Erwin Smith. It is a gram negative bacterium related to E.coli, yersinia. It is primarily a rod-shaped bacteria. A well-known member of this genus is the species E -amvlovora, which causes fireblight on apple, pear, and other Rosaceous crops. Erwinia carotovora  is another species, which causes diseases in many plants. These species produce pectolytic enzymes that hydrolyze pectin between individual plant cells. This causes the cells to separate, a disease plant pathologists term bacterial soft rot.


Erwinia carotovora (Pectobacterium carotovorum)

This bacteria is a ubiquitous plant pathogen with a wide host range , able to cause disease in almost any plant tissue it invades. It is a very economically important pathogen in terms of postharvest losses, and a common cause of decay in stored fruits and vegetables. Decay caused by E. carotovora is often referred to as bacterial soft rot . Most plants or plant parts can resist invasion by the bacteria, unless some type of wound is present. High humidity and temperatures around 30°C favor development of decay. Mutants can be produced which are less virulent. Virulence factors include: pectinases, cellulases,

           # 2 Fungal diseases
Algal leaf spot ------    Cephaleuros virescens
Anthracnose --------    Glomerella cingulata
                             Colletotrichum gloeosporioides


Bitten leaf ------------    Ceratocystis paradoxa
                             Chalara paradoxa


Bipolaris leafspot-----     Bipolaris incurvata
Black scorch ------    Ceratocystis paradoxa
                             Chalara paradoxa [anomorph]


Bud rot -------                  Phytophthora palmivora
                             Phytophthora heveae
                             Phytophthora katsurae
                             Phytophthora nicotianae
                              Fusarium moniliforme
                              Fusarium solani
                               Graphium sp.


Catacauma leaf spot --------    Catacauma mucosum
Damping-off ------                   Fusarium spp.
                                             Phytophthora spp.
                                             Pythium spp.
                                               Rhizoctonia solani


Dry basal rot ------                     Ceratocystis paradoxa
                                             Chalara paradoxa


Ganoderma butt rot ---------    Ganoderma boninense
                                            Ganoderma tornatum
                                            Ganoderma zonatum


Graphiola leaf spot ----------    Graphiola phoenicis
Gray leaf blight-----     Pestalotiopsis palmarum
Koleroga --------    Phytophthora arecae
Leaf blight --------    Cytospora palmarum
Leaf spots ---------    Alternaria sp.
                            Botryosphaeria disrupta
                              Capitorostrum cocoes
                             Cercospora sp.
                             Curvularia lunata
                              Cylindrocladium pteridis
                               Drechslera gigantea
                              Drechslera halodes
                               Epicoccum nigrum
                                 Helminthosporium sp.
                                Macrophoma sp.
                                  Macrosporium cocos
                                       Melanconium sp.
                                     Mycosphaerella palmicola
                                       Periconiella cocoes
                                       Pseudoepicoccum cocos
                                         Phomopsis sp.
                                           Phyllosticta palmetto
                                          Ramularia necator

Virus and viroid diseases

diseases
Cadang-cadang Coconut cadang-cadang viroid
Foliar decay SS-DNA, identity uncertain
Tinangaja Coconut tinangaja viroid

    Phytoplasmal diseases                                                               
Awka disease Phytoplasma
Blast Phytoplasma suspected
Cape St. Paul wilt Phytoplasma
Cedros wilt Phytomonas stahellii
Heart rot Phytomonas stahellii
Kaincope disease Phytoplasma
Kalimantan wilt Phytoplasma suspected
Kribi disease Phytoplasma
Lethal decline Phytoplasma
Lethal disease Phytoplasma
Lethal yellowing Phytoplasma
Pudricion del cogollo Phytoplasma
Root wilt disease Phytoplasma
Stem necrosis Phytoplasma suspected

Miscellaneous diseases and disorders


Dry bud rot Not known, but possibly vectored by the insects Sogatella kolophon and S. yubana


Frond rot Physiological disorder

List of infectious sheep and goat diseases

    * Prions: scrapie

Bluetongue virus particle

    * Viruses: foot-and-mouth disease, bluetongue disease, maedi-visna, orf, tick-borne encephalomyelitis, peste-des-petits-ruminants virus, sheeppox and goatpox

    * Bacteria: blackleg, foot rot, caprine pleuropneumonia, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, chlamydiosis, Johne's disease, listeriosis, fleece-rot

A sheep showing clinical symptoms of facial eczema.

    * Funguses: Facial eczema

    * Parasites:
          o protozoa: Trypanosoma spp., Babesia spp., Theileria hirci, Anaplasma ovis, Eimeria spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Giardia intestinalis, Sarcocystis spp., Cryptosporidium parvum, Ehrlichia ovina

E. granulosus life cycle

    *
          o helminths:
                + flatworms: Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Fascioloides magna, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Schistosoma bovis
                + tapeworms: Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia ovis, Taenia hydatigena, Moniezia spp.
                + roundworms: (including Hoose  Elaeophora schneideri, Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp., Teladorsagia spp., Cooperia spp., Nematodirus spp., Dictyocaulus filaria, Protostrongylus refescens, Muellerius capillaris, Oesophagostomum spp., Neostrongylus linearis, Chabertia ovina, Trichuris ovis
          o arachnids and insects:
                + ticks: Ixodes spp., Amblyomma spp., Boophilus spp., Dermacentor spp., Haemphysalis spp., Hyalomma spp., Rhipicephalus spp.
                + mites: Psoroptes ovis, Sarcoptes ovis, Chorioptes ovis, Demodex ovis, Demodex caprae
                + lice: Lepikentron ovis, Bovicola caprae, Linognathus ovillus, Linognathus stenopsis
                + Diptera: Anopheles spp., Culex, Aedes spp., Lucilia spp., Chrysomya spp., Oestrus ovis, Myiasis

Typical arched back stance of lamb Nutritional muscular dystrophy, a nutrional deficiency disease

    * Nutritional diseases
          o Nutritional muscular dystrophy

List of tomato diseases

1 Bacterial diseases
2 Fungal diseases


3 Nematodes diseases
4 Viral,viroid and phytoplasma

                                    Bacterial diseases


Bacterial canker                             Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis

Bacterial speck                              Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato

Bacterial spot                                 Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria
Bacterial stem rot and fruit rot     Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora
Bacterial wilt                                 Ralstonia solanacearum
Pith necrosis                                   Pseudomonas corrugata
Syringae leaf spot                           Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae


      Phytophthora drechsleri
                                           Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica
                                         Phytophthora parasitica
Cercospora leaf mold         Pseudocercospora fuligena
                                        Cercospora fuligena  
Charcoal rot     Macrophomina phaseolina
Corky root rot     Pyrenochaeta lycopersici
Didymella stem rot   Didymella lycopersici  
Early blight     Alternaria solani


Fusarium crown and root rot     Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici
Fusarium wilt     Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici
Gray leaf spot     Stemphylium botryosum f.sp. lycopersici
                             Stemphylium lycopersici
                             Stemphylium floridanum
                                 Stemphylium solani
Gray mold     Botrytis cinerea
                                Botryotinia fuckeliana

Late blight     Phytophthora infestans
Leaf mold   
Fulvia fulva       Cladosporium fulvum
                         Phoma rot
  
Phoma destructiva
Powdery mildew   
Oidiopsis sicula
Leveillula taurica
Pythium damping-off and fruit rot   
Pythium aphanidermatum
Pythium arrhenomanes
Pythium debaryanum
Pythium myriotylum
Pythium ultimum
Rhizoctonia damping-off and fruit rot   
Rhizoctonia solani
Thanatephorus cucumeris
Rhizopus rot     Rhizopus stolonifer
Septoria leaf spot     Septoria lycopersici
Sour rot   
Geotrichum candidum
Galactomyces geotrichum Geotrichum klebahnii
Southern blight   
Sclerotium rolfsii
Athelia rolfsii
Target spot   
Corynespora cassiicola
Verticillium wilt   
Verticillium albo-atrum
Verticillium dahliae
White mold   
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Sclerotinia minor Nematodes, parasitic
Nematodes, parasitic
Root-knot   
Meloidogyne spp.
Sting   
Belonolaimus longicaudatus
Stubby-root   
Paratrichodorus spp.
Trichodorus spp. Viral, viroid and phytoplasma
Viral, viroid and mycoplasmalike organisms  diseases
Common mosaic of tomato      Tobacco mosaic virus
Curly top     Curly top virus
                                                     FRUIT WORM IN TOMANTO
Potato virus Y     Potato virus Y
Pseudo curly top     Pseudo curly top virus
Tomato bushy stunt     Tomato bushy stunt virus
Tomato etch     Tobacco etch virus
Tomato fern leaf     Cucumber mosaic virus
Tomato mosaic     Tomato mosaic virus Tomato mottle     Tomato mottle gemini virus
Tomato necrosis     Alfalfa mosaic virus
Tomato spotted wilt     Tomato spotted wilt virus
Tomato yellow leaf curl     Tomato yellow leaf curl virus
Tomato yellow top     Tomato yellow top virus
Tomato bunchy top     Tomato bunchy top viroid
Tomato planto macho     Tomato planto macho viroid
Aster yellows     MLO
Tomato big bud     MLO Miscellaneous diseases and disorders
Miscellaneous diseases and disorders
Autogenous necrosis     Genetic
Fruit pox     Genetic
Gold fleck     Genetic
Graywall     Undetermined etiology







Sunday, March 20, 2011

Coconut oil

Coconut oil is extracted from the kernel or meat of matured coconut harvested from the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). Throughout the tropical world it has provided the primary source of fat in the diets of millions of people for generations. It has various applications in food, medicine, and industry. Coconut oil is very heat stable so it makes an excellent cooking and frying oil. It has a smoke point of about 360 °F (180 °C). Because of its stability it is slow to oxidize and thus resistant to rancidity, lasting up to two years due to high saturated fat content.


PRODUCTION



The wet process for making coconut oil is the original and variations of it are still the best and cleanest way to extract coconut oil. The dry process was invented as a way to mass produce a food/industrial grade oil although there are some drawbacks to its extraction method.

In the wet process, coconut milk is made first and then the oil is extracted from the milk. Coconut kernel is shredded and mixed with water. Then it is pressed and the oil is extracted. The resulting oil/water mixture is left to sit and it separates into two layers, watery on the bottom, creamy on top. The thicker cream is decanted off the top and the original method of separation involved heating or fermenting the milk to separate the oil This traditional method made a very unstable oil with a short shelf life meant for quick daily use.

All high volume modern methods incorporate heating, fermentation, and or centrifugal force to separate the oil from the water. The use of a cool temperature vacuum separator has been suggested but the technology is currently cost prohibitive for all but the biggest manufacture and isn't nearly as efficient as the other techniques.

Proper harvesting of the coconut (the age of a coconut can be 2 to 20 months when picked) makes a significant difference in the efficacy of the oil making process and the use of a centrifuge process makes the best final extracted product. Any coconut oil made from a non-copra style of extraction can be called virgin organic coconut oil but only the centrifuge process can make raw oil. When done properly it doesn't need to be heated or fermented to remove moisture.

In the dry process, the oil is extracted directly from the kernel. The kernel can be dried (under the sun or in a kiln/oven) shredded or whole, then is compressed and the oil is extracted. This is a most inefficient and dirty way to remove the oil from the kernel and requires more processing to reclaim the rest of the oil from the left over cake from compressing. The oil commonly has bits of shell and kernel left in it along with a high moisture content which discolor it and make it go rancid quickly. Superheated steam, boiling and fermentation are some of methods use to remove the color, debris and moisture from the oil.

RBD

 RBD stands for "refined, bleached, and deodorized." RBD oil is usually made from copra (dried coconut kernel). Copra can be made by smoke drying, sun drying, or kiln drying. The dried copra is then placed in a powerful hydraulic press with added heat and the oil is extracted. This yields up practically all the oil present, amounting to more than 60% of the dry weight of the coconut.

This "crude" coconut oil is not suitable for consumption because it contains contaminants and must be refined with further heating and filtering.

Another method for extraction of a "high quality" coconut oil involves the enzymatic action of alpha-amylase, polygalacturonases and proteases on diluted coconut paste.

Unlike virgin coconut oil, refined coconut oil has no coconut taste or aroma. RBD oil is used for home cooking, commercial food processing, and cosmetic, industrial, and pharmaceutical purposes.

Hydrogenation

RBD coconut oil can be processed further into partially or fully hydrogenated oil to increase its melting point. Since virgin and RBD coconut oils melt at 76 °F (24 °C), foods containing coconut oil tend to melt in warm climates. A higher melting point is desirable in these warm climates so the oil is hydrogenated. The melting point of hydrogenated coconut oil is 97–104 °F (36–40 °C).

In the process of hydrogenation, unsaturated fats (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids) are combined with hydrogen in a catalytic process to make them more saturated. Coconut oil contains only 6% monounsaturated and 2% polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this process some of these are transformed into trans fatty acids.

Fractionation

Fractionated coconut oil is a fraction of the whole oil, in which the different medium chain fatty acids are separated for specific uses. Lauric acid, a 12 carbon chain fatty acid, is often removed because of its high value for industrial and medical purposes. Fractionated coconut oil may also be referred to as caprylic/capric triglyceride oil or medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil because it is primarily the medium chain caprylic (8 carbons) and capric (10 carbons) acids that make up the bulk of the oil. MCT oil is most frequently used for medical applications and special diets.

Figures

The United States Department of Agriculture has published historical production figures for coconut oil for years beginning October 1 and ending September 30. Coconut oil makes up around 2.5% of world vegetable oil production. Over the last few years coconut oil production is estimated to have been as follows:
Standards

The Asian and Pacific Coconut Community (APCC), whose 17 members produce about 90% of the coconut sold commercially has published its Standards for Virgin Coconut Oil. The Philippines has established a Department of Science and Technology (DOST) governmental standard
The United States Food and Drug Administration,World Health Organizat1] International College of Nutritio the United States Department of Health and Human Services American Dietetic Association, American Heart Association,[British National Health Service,and Dietitians of Canammend against the consumption of coconut oil due to its high levels of saturated fat.

Coconut oil contains a large proportion of lauric acid, a saturated fat that raises blood cholesterol levels by increasing the amount of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. This may create a more favourable blood cholesterol profile, though it is unclear if coconut oil may promote atherosclerosis through other pathways. Because much of the saturated fat of coconut oil is in the form of lauric acid, coconut oil may be a better alternative to partially hydrogenated vegetable oil when solid fats are required. In addition virgin coconut oil contains large amounts of medium-chain triglycerides, which may not carry the same risks as other saturated fats. Early studies on the health effects of coconut oil used partially hydrogenated coconut oil, which creates trans fats, and not virgin coconut oil which has a different health risk profi
A repellent made from coconut oil can be used to prevent tungiasis-causing sand fleas from invading the body..
Uses
Culinary arts

Coconut oil is commonly used in cooking, especially for frying. In communities where coconut oil is widely used in cooking, the unrefined oil is frequently the one most commonly used.

In recent years virgin coconut oil has increasingly become popular in natural food circles and with vegans. It has been described as having a "haunting, nutty, vanilla flavor" that also has a touch of sweetness that works well in baked goods, pastries, and sautés. Coconut oil is commonly used to flavor many South Asian curries.

The caloric content of coconut oil is very nearly the same as that of other dietary fats, being reduced only slightly by the presence of medium chain triglycerides which constitute less than half of the total fat content. A value of 8.3 kcal/g has been quoted for dietary medium-chain triglycerides.
Hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated coconut oil is often used in non-dairy creamers, and snack foods including popcorn Hydrogenated coconut oil is also sold in Australia under the brand-name Copha and is the main ingredient in Australian snacks such as Chocolate crackles and White Christmas.
Industry

Engine feedstock
See also: Vegetable oil used as fuel

Coconut oil has been tested for use as a feedstock for biodiesel to be used as a diesel engine fuel. In this manner it can be applied to power generators and transport using diesel engines. Since straight coconut oil has a high gelling temperature (22–25 °C), a high viscosity, and a minimum combustion chamber temperature of 500 °C (932 °F) (to avoid polymerization of the fuel), coconut oil is typically transesterified to make biodiesel. Use of B100 (100% biodiesel) is only possible in temperate climates as the gel point is approximately 10 °C (50 °F). The oil needs to meet the Weihenstephan standard for pure vegetable oil used as a fuel otherwise moderate to severe damage from carbonisation and clogging will occur in an unmodified engine.

The Philippines, Vanuatu, Samoa, and several other tropical island countries are using coconut oil as an alternative fuel source to run automobiles, trucks, and buses, and to power generators Coconut oil is currently used as a fuel for transport in the Philippines. Further research into the oil's potential as a fuel for electricity generation is being carried out in the islands of the Pacific. In the 1990s Bougainville conflict, islanders cut off from supplies due to a blockade used it to fuel their vehicles.Engine lubricant

Coconut oil has been tested for use as an engine lubricant; the producer claims the oil reduces fuel consumption and smoke emissions, and allows the engine to run at a cooler temperature.Transformer oil

Transformer oil acts as an insulating and cooling medium in transformers. The insulating oil fills up pores in fibrous insulation and also the gaps between the coil conductors and the spacing between the siding and the tank, and thus increases the dielectric strength of the insulation. A transformer in operation generates heat in the winding, and that heat is transferred to the oil via conduction. Heated oil then flows to the radiators by convection. Oil supplied from the radiators, being cooler, cools the winding. There are several important properties such as dielectric strength, flash point, viscosity, specific gravity and pour point and all of them have to be considered when qualifying an oil for use in transformers. Normally mineral oil is used, but coconut oil has been shown to possess all the properties needed to function as an environmentally friendly and economic replacement to mineral oil for this purpose.

Herbicide

Acids derived from coconut oil can be used as herbicides, for a more environmentally friendly way of combating weeds. It is also considered unproblematic for people who have sensitivity to synthetic herbicides.Personal uses
Cosmetics and skin treatments

Coconut oil is excellent as a skin moisturizer and softener. A study shows that extra virgin coconut oil is effective and safe when used as a moisturizer, with absence of adverse reactions A study found that coconut oil helped prevent protein loss from the wet combing of hair when used for fourteen hours as a conditioner before washing the hairSexual lubrication

There are widespread reports of the use of coconut oil as a sexual lubricant. Like other oil-based intimate lubricants, coconut oil should not be used with latex condoms.




uses

The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family). It is the only accepted species in the genus CocosDescription

Cocos nucifera is a large palm, growing up to 30 metres (98 ft) tall, with pinnate leaves 4–6 metres (13–20 ft) long, and pinnae 60–90 cm long; old leaves break away cleanly, leaving the trunk smooth. The term coconut can refer to the entire coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which is not a botanical nut. The spelling cocoanut is an old-fashioned form of the word.

Distribution

The coconut palm is grown throughout the tropics for decoration, as well as for its many culinary and non-culinary uses; virtually every part of the coconut palm can be utilized by humans in some manner. However, the extent of cultivation in the tropics is threatening a number of habitats such as mangroves; an example of such damage to an ecoregion is in the Petenes mangroves of the Yucatan.


The coconut has spread across much of the tropics, probably aided in many cases by seafaring people. Coconut fruit in the wild is light, buoyant and highly water resistant, and evolved to disperse significant distances via marine currents. Fruit collected from the sea as far north as Norway are viable. In the Hawaiian Islands, the coconut is regarded as a Polynesian introduction, first brought to the islands by early Polynesian voyagers from their homelands in Oceania. They are now almost ubiquitous between 26°N and 26°S except for the interiors of Africa and South America.

The flowers of the coconut palm are polygamomonoecious, with both male and female flowers in the same inflorescence. Flowering occurs continuously. Coconut palms are believed to be largely cross-pollinated, although some[which?] dwarf varieties are self-pollinating. The meat of the coconut is the edible endosperm, located on the inner surface of the shell. Inside the endosperm layer, coconuts contain an edible clear liquid that is sweet, salty, or both.

Coconuts received the name from Portuguese explorers, the sailors of Vasco da Gama in India, who first brought them to Europe. The brown and hairy surface of coconuts reminded them of a ghost or witch called Coco. Before it was called nux indica, a name given by Marco Polo in 1280 while in Sumatra, taken from the Arabs who called it جوز هندي jawz hindī. Both names translate to "Indian nut." When coconuts arrived in England, they retained the coco name and nut was added.
Historical and natural distribution of Cocos Nucifera (coconut).

A coconut from ivory coast.

Coconut germinating on Black Sand Beach, Island of Hawaii

Origins

The origins of this plant are the subject of debate.
Most authorities claim it is native to South Asia (particularly the Ganges Delta), while others claim its origin is in northwestern South America.

Fossil records from New Zealand indicate that small, coconut-like plants grew there as long as 15 million years ago.
Even older fossils have been uncovered in Karnataka, Rajasthan, Thennai in Kerala on the banks of River Palar, Then-pennai, Thamirabharani, Cauvery and Mountain sides at Kerala borders, Konaseema-Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra (India)

The oldest known so far in Khulna, Bangladesh.
Mention is made of coconuts in the 2nd–1st centuries BC in the Mahawamsa of Sri Lanka. The later Culawamsa states that King Aggabodhi I (575–608) planted a coconut garden of 3 yojanas length, possibly the earliest recorded coconut plantation.

Etymology

The OED states: "Portuguese and Spanish authors of the 16th c. agree in identifying the word with Portuguese and Spanish coco 'grinning face, grin, grimace', also 'bugbear, scarecrow', cognate with cocar 'to grin, make a grimace'; the name being said to refer to the face-like appearance of the base of the shell, with its three holes. Historical evidence favors the European origin of the name, for there is nothing similar in any of the languages of India, where the Portuguese first found the fruit; and indeed Barbosa, Barros, and Garcia, in mentioning the Malayalam name tenga, and Canarese narle, expressly say 'we call these fruits quoquos', 'our people have given it the name of coco', 'that which we call coco, and the Malabars temga'."


Natural habitat

The coconut palm thrives on sandy soils and is highly tolerant of salinity. It prefers areas with abundant sunlight and regular rainfall (150 cm to 250 cm annually), which makes colonizing shorelines of the tropics relatively straightforward. Coconuts also need high humidity (70–80%+) for optimum growth, which is why they are rarely seen in areas with low humidity, like the south eastern Mediterranean or Andalusia, even where temperatures are high enough (regularly above 24°C or 75.2°F).

Coconut palms require warm conditions for successful growth, and are intolerant of cold weather. Optimum growth is with a mean annual temperature of 27 °C (81 °F), and growth is reduced below 21 °C (70 °F). Some seasonal variation is tolerated, with good growth where mean summer temperatures are between 28–37 °C (82–99 °F), and survival as long as winter temperatures are above 4–12 °C (39–54 °F); they will survive brief drops to 0 °C (32 °F). Severe frost is usually fatal, although they have been known to recover from temperatures of −4 °C (24.8 °F).[7] They may grow but not fruit properly in areas where there is not sufficient warmth, like Bermuda.

The conditions required for coconut trees to grow without any care are:
mean daily temperature above 12-13 °C every day of the year
50 year low temperature above freezing
mean yearly rainfall above 1000 mm
no or very little overhead canopy, since even small trees require a lot of sun

The main limiting factor is that most locations which satisfy the first three requirements do not satisfy the fourth, except near the coast where the sandy soil and salt spray limit the growth of most other trees (Palmtalk).

The range of the natural habitat of the coconut palm tree is delineated by the red line in map C1 to the right (based on information in Werth 1933, slightly modified by Niklas Jonsson).

Cultivation

A coconut plantation in La Digue, Seychelles

Coconut trees are very hard to establish in dry climates, and cannot grow there without frequent irrigation; in drought conditions, the new leaves do not open well, and older leaves may become desiccated; fruit also tends to be shed.

Coconut palms are grown in more than 80 countries of the world, with a total production of 61 million tonnes per year.

Cooler climates

In cooler climates (but not less than USDA Zone 9), a similar palm, the queen palm (Syagrus romanzoffiana), is used in landscaping. Its fruits are very similar to the coconut, but much smaller. The queen palm was originally classified in the genus Cocos along with the coconut, but was later reclassified in Syagrus. A recently discovered palm, Beccariophoenix alfredii from Madagascar, is nearly identical to the coconut, and more so than the queen palm. It is cold-hardy, and produces a coconut lookalike in cooler areas.Top ten coconut producers — 19 December 2009

Country Production (tonnes) Footnote
Philippines 19,500,000 *
Indonesia 15,319,500
India 10,894,000
Brazil 2,759,044
Sri Lanka 2,200,000 F
Thailand 1,721,640 F
Mexico 1,246,400 F
Vietnam 1,086,000 A
Papua New Guinea 677,000 F
Malaysia 555,120
Tanzania 370,000 F
World 54,716,444 A
No symbol = official figure, P = official figure, F = FAO estimate,
* = Unofficial/Semi-official/mirror data, C = Calculated figure,
A = Aggregate (may include official, semi-official or estimates);

Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations:
Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division


Coconut and copra output in 2005

Harvesting

In some parts of the world (Thailand and Malaysia), trained pig-tailed macaques are used to harvest coconuts. Training schools for pig-tailed macaques still exist both in southern Thailand, and in the Malaysian state of Kelantan. Competitions are held each year to find the fastest harvester.

Pests and diseases

Diseases

Coconuts are susceptible to the phytoplasma disease Lethal Yellowing. One recently selected cultivar, 'Maypan', has been bred for resistance to this disease.

Pests

The coconut palm is damaged by the larvae of many Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species which feed on it, including Batrachedra spp: B. arenosella, B. atriloqua (feeds exclusively on Cocos nucifera), B. mathesoni (feeds exclusively on Cocos nucifera), and B. nuciferae.

Brontispa longissima (the "coconut leaf beetle") feeds on young leaves and damages seedlings and mature coconut palms. On September 27, 2007, Philippines' Metro Manila and 26 provinces were quarantined due to having been infested with this pest (to save the $800-million Philippine coconut industry).

The fruit may also be damaged by eriophyid coconut mites (Eriophyes guerreronis). This mite infests coconut plantations, and is devastating: it can destroy up to 90% of coconut production. The immature nuts are infested and desapped by larvae staying in the portion covered by the perianth of the immature nut; the nuts then drop off or survive deformed. Spraying with wettable sulfur 0.4% or with neem-based pesticides can give some relief, but is cumbersome and labour intensive.

In Kerala the main pests of coconut are the coconut mite, the rhinoceros beetle, the Red Palm Weevil and the coconut leaf caterpillar. Research on this topic has as of 2009 produced no results, and researchers from the Kerala Agricultural University and the Central Plantation Crop Research Institute, Kasaragode are still searching for a cure. The Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kannur under Kerala Agricultural University has developed an innovative extension approach called compact area group approach (CAGA) to combat coconut mites. And in the Virgin Islands


India


Traditional areas of coconut cultivation in India are the states of Kerala,Tamil Nadu, Karnataka,Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal, Pondicherry, Maharashtra and Islands of Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar.

Kerala is the largest coconut growing state in India, and is famous for the largest number of coconut trees in India. They are also famous for the coconut-based products like tender coconut water, copra, coconut oil, coconut cake, coconut toddy, coconut shell-based products, coconut wood-based products, coconut leaves, and coir pith.

Four southern states put together account for 92% of the total production in the country (Kerala 45.22%, Tamil Nadu 26.56%, Karnataka 10.85%, Andhra Pradesh 8.93% and other states 8.44%).[14]

Coconut is cultivated mainly in the following Indian States
Kerala (All India Production 45%)
Tamil Nadu (All India Production 27%)
Karnataka (All India Production 11%)
Andhra pradesh (All India Production 9%)
Other States like Goa, Maharashtra, Orissa and West Bengal. In the North eastern states like Tripura and Assam also coconut cultivation exist.


Maldives

Coat of Arms of the Maldives

Green coconut fruit strands on the tree are featured on each Maldivian Rufyya banknote

Coconut is the national tree of the Maldives and is considered the most important plant in the country. A coconut tree is also included in the country's national emblem or coat of arms. Coconut trees are grown on all the islands.Before the modern ways of contstructing was introduced to Maldives, Coconut leaves are used as a roofing material in many houses in islands , while coconut timber is used to build houses and boat building.Coconut leaves are used in many resorts of Maldives.

United States of America

Coconut palms growing well at Gizella Kopsick Palm Arboretum, St. Petersburg, FL

The only places in the U.S. where coconut palms can be grown and reproduced outdoors without irrigation are Hawaii, south Florida and the U.S. territories of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands. Coconut palms will grow from coastal Pinellas County and St. Petersburg southwards on Florida's west coast, and Melbourne southwards on Florida's east coast. The occasional coconut palm is seen north of these areas in favored microclimates in the Tampa and Clearwater metro area and around Cape Canaveral, as well as the Orlando-Kissimmee-Daytona Beach metro area. They may likewise be grown in favored microclimates in the Rio Grande Valley area of Deep South Texas near Brownsville and on the upper northeast Texas Coast at Galveston Island. They may reach fruiting maturity, but are damaged or killed by the occasional winter freezes in these areas. Most of the coconut palms, even full grown specimens, in central Florida that were not adjacent to water were killed by the freeze event in January 2010. Even those on the water were damaged, but are recovering. While coconut palms flourish in south Florida, unusually bitter cold snaps can kill or injure coconut palms there as well. Only the Florida Keys and the coastlines provide safe havens from the cold for growing coconut palms on the U.S. mainland. The farthest north in the United States a coconut palm has been known to grow outdoors is in Newport Beach, California along the Pacific Coast Highway. For coconut palms to survive in Southern California, they need sandy soil and minimal water in the winter to prevent root rot, and would benefit from root heating coils.

Middle East

The main coconut producing area in the Middle East is the Dhofar region of Oman. However, they can be grown all along the Persian Gulf coast, Arabian Sea and Red Sea coast because these seas are tropical and they provide enough humidity for coconut trees to grow (through sea water evaporation).

Arab Dhows are stitched together with coconut fiber rope

The young coconut plants need to be nursed and irrigated with drip pipes until they are old enough (stem bulb development) to be irrigated with brackish water or sea water alone, after which they can be replanted on the beaches. In particular, the area around Salalah maintains large coconut plantations similar to those found across the Arabian Sea in Kerala. The reasons why coconut are cultivated only in Yemen's Al Mahrah, Hadramaut Governorates and in the Sultanate Oman, but not in other suitable areas in the Arabian Peninsula, may originate from the fact, that Oman and Hadramaut had long Dhow trade relations with Burma, Malaysia, Indonesia, East Africa and Zanzibar as well as southern India and China. Omani people needed the coir rope from the coconut fiber rope to stitch together their traditional high sea going dhow vessels in which nails were never used. The 'know how' of coconut cultivation and necessary soil fixation and irrigation may have found it's way into Omani and Hadrami and Al- Mahra culture by people who returned from those oversea areas. The coconut cultivars grown in Oman are generally of the drought resistant Indian 'West Coast tall' (WC Tall) variety.

Coconut trees line the beaches and corniches of Oman

Unlike the UAE, which grows mostly non-native dwarf or hybrid coconut cultivars imported from Florida for ornamental purposes, the slender tall Omani coconut cultivars are relatively well adapted to the Middle East's hot dry seasons, but need longer to reach maturity. The Middle East's hot, dry climate favors the development of coconut mites, which cause immature nut dropping and may cause brownish gray discoloration on the coconut's outer green fiber.

Cutting open a tender coconut. A popular drink.

The ancient coconut groves of Dhofar were mentioned by the medieval Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta in his writings, known as Al Rihla. The annual rainy season known locally as Khareef or Monsoon makes coconut cultivation easy on the Arabian east coast.

Coconut trees also are increasingly grown for decorative purposes along the coasts of the UAE and Saudi Arabia with the help of irrigation. The UAE have, however, imposed strict laws on mature coconut tree imports from other countries to reduce the spread of pests to other native palm trees, as the mixing of date and coconut trees poses a risk of cross species palm pests, such as rhinoceros beetle and red palm weevil. The artificial landscaping adopted in Florida may have been the cause for lethal yellowing , a viral coconut palm disease that leads to the death of the tree. It is spread by host insects, that thrive on heavy turf grasses. Therefore heavy turf grass environments (beach resorts and golf courses) also pose a major treat to local coconut trees. Traditionally, dessert banana plants and local wild beach flora such as scaevola taccada and Ipomoea pes-caprae were used as humidity supplying green undergrowth for coconut trees, mixed with sea almond and sea hibiscus. Due to growing sedentary life style and heavy handed landscaping, there has been a decline in these traditional farming and soil fixing techniques.

coconut seed interior

Layers of the coconut fruit
(1) Epicarp
(2) Mesocarp
(3) Endocarp
(4) Endosperm
(5) Embryo
Coconut, meat, rawNutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,481 kJ (354 kcal)
Carbohydrates 15.23 g
Sugars 6.23 g
Dietary fiber 9.0 g
Fat 33.49 g
saturated 29.70 g
monounsaturated 1.43 g
polyunsaturated 0.37 g
Protein 3.3 g
Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.066 mg (5%)
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.02 mg (1%)
Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.54 mg (4%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.300 mg (6%)
Vitamin B6 0.054 mg (4%)
Folate (Vit. B9) 26 μg (7%)
Vitamin C 3.3 mg (6%)
Calcium 14 mg (1%)
Iron 2.43 mg (19%)
Magnesium 32 mg (9%)
Phosphorus 113 mg (16%)
Potassium 356 mg (8%)
Zinc 1.1 mg (11%)
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database


Botanically the coconut fruit is a drupe, not a true nut. Like other fruits it has three layers: exocarp, mesocarp, and endocarp. The exocarp and mesocarp make up the husk of the coconut. Coconuts sold in the shops of non-tropical countries often have had the exocarp (outermost layer) removed. The mesocarp or "shell" thus exposed is the hardest part of the coconut, and is composed of fibers called coir which have many traditional and commercial uses. The shell has three germination pores (stoma) or eyes that are clearly visible on its outside surface once the husk is removed.

Seed

Within the shell is a single seed. When the seed germinates, the root (radicle) of its embryo pushes out through one of the eyes of the shell. The outermost layer of the seed, the testa, adheres to the inside of the shell. In a mature coconut, a thick albuminous endosperm adheres to the inside of the testa. This endosperm or meat is the white and fleshy edible part of the coconut. Coconuts sold with a small portion of the husk cut away are immature, and contain coconut water rather than meat.

Although coconut meat contains less fat than many oilseeds and nuts such as almonds, it is noted for its high amount of medium-chain saturated fat. About 90% of the fat found in coconut meat is saturated, a proportion exceeding that of foods such as lard, butter, and tallow. There has been some debate as to whether or not the saturated fat in coconuts is less unhealthy than other forms of saturated fat (see coconut oil). Like most nut meats, coconut meat contains less sugar and more protein than popular fruits such as bananas, apples and oranges. It is relatively high in minerals such as iron, phosphorus and zinc.

The endosperm surrounds a hollow interior space, filled with air and often a liquid referred to as coconut water (distinct from coconut milk). Young coconuts used for coconut water are called tender coconuts: when the coconut is still green, the endosperm inside is thin and tender, and is often eaten as a snack, but the main reason to pick the fruit at this stage is to drink its water. The water of a tender coconut is liquid endosperm. It is sweet (mild) with an aerated feel when cut fresh. Depending on its size a tender contains 300 to 1,000 ml of coconut water.

The meat in a young coconut is softer and more gelatinous than a mature coconut, so much so, that it is sometimes known as coconut jelly. When the coconut has ripened and the outer husk has turned brown, a few months later, it will fall from the palm of its own accord. At that time the endosperm has thickened and hardened, while the coconut water has become somewhat bitter.

When the coconut fruit is still green, the husk is very hard, but green coconuts only fall if they have been attacked by molds, etc. By the time the coconut naturally falls, the husk has become brown, the coir has become drier and softer, and the coconut is less likely to cause damage when it drops, although there have been instances of coconuts falling from palms and injuring people, and claims of some fatalities. This was the subject of a paper published in 1984 that won the Ig Nobel Prize in 2001. Falling coconut deaths are often used as a comparison to shark attacks; the claim is often made that a person is more likely to be killed by a falling coconut than by a shark, yet, there is no evidence of people ever being killed in this manner.

When viewed on end, the endocarp and germination pores give the fruit the appearance of a coco (also Côca), a Portuguese word for a scary witch from Portuguese folklore, that used to be represented as a carved vegetable lantern, hence the name of the fruit. The specific name nucifera is Latin for nut-bearing.

A small number of writings about coconut mention the existence of the coconut pearl. This is generally considered a hoax. Professor Armstrong, of Palomar College, says "most eyewitness records of coconut pearls cited in the literature are secondhand accounts that were not observed by the authors of these articles. There are a few firsthand, published accounts of pearls observed inside coconuts, but these have been shown to be fraudulent."

The shell composition is shown in the tables below.Coconut shell compound (dry basis)
Compound Percent
Cellulose 33.61
Lignin 36.51
Pentosans 29.27
Ash 0.61
Source: Jasper Guy Woodroof (1979). "Coconuts: Production, Processing, Products".
2nd ed. AVI Publishing Co. Inc.
Coconut shell ash compound
Compound Percent
K2O 45.01
Na2O 15.42
CaO 6.26
MgO 1.32
Fe2O3 + Al2O3 1.39
P2O5 4.64
SO3 5.75
SiO2 4.64
Source: Jasper Guy Woodroof (1979). "Coconuts: Production, Processing, Products".
2nd ed. AVI Publishing Co. Inc.

Roots

Unlike some other plants, the palm tree has neither tap root nor root hairs; but has a fibrous root system

Inflorescence

On the same inflorescence, the palm produces both the female and male flowers; thus the palm is monoecious.

Uses

The coconut palm yields up to 75 fruits per year[citation needed]. Nearly all parts of the palm are useful, and it has significant economic value.

Coconuts' versatility is sometimes noted in its naming. In Sanskrit it is kalpa vriksha ("the tree which provides all the necessities of life"). In Malay language, it is pokok seribu guna ("the tree of a thousand uses"). In the Philippines, the coconut is commonly the "Tree of Life".

Flower

Coconut Flower and Kerala Marriage

Coconut flowers

In Kerala in South India, coconut flowers must be present during a marriage ceremony. The flowers are inserted into a barrel of unhusked rice (paddy) and placed within the sight of the wedding ceremony.

Coconut Flower and Sri Lanka In Sri Lanka, coconut flowers always adorn auspicious occasions, especially Buddhist and Hindu weddings. The flowers are stood in brass urns and placed in prominent positions.

Husk

In Thailand, the coconut husk is used as a potting medium to produce healthy forest tree saplings. The process of husk extraction from the coir bypasses the retting process, using a custom-built coconut husk extractor designed by ASEAN-Canada Forest Tree Seed Centre (ACFTSC) in 1986. Fresh husks contains more tannin than old husks. Tannin produces negative effects on sapling growth.

In southern Asia, the coconut husk is used in the manufacture of coir, which is subsequently used in the production of rope, as well as household products like door mats and sacks.

Shell

In India, coconut shells are used as bowls and in the manufacture of various crafts products, including buttons. In parts of South India, the shell and husk are burned for smoke to repel mosquitoes.

Coconut shell buttons.

Culinary

Culinary uses of the various parts of the coconut include:
The nut provides oil for cooking and making margarine.
The white, fleshy part of the seed, the coconut meat, is edible and used fresh or dried in cooking.
The fleshy part can be desiccated to produce coconut milk in making curry dish and other dishes using coconut milk.


Coconut water

The cavity is filled with coconut water, which is sterile until opened. It mixes easily with blood, so for this reason it was used during World War II in emergency transfusions.
It contains sugar, fiber, proteins, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals, and provides an isotonic electrolyte balance, making it a nutritious food source. It is used as a refreshing drink throughout the humid tropics, and is used in isotonic sports drinks. It can also be used to make the gelatinous dessert nata de coco. Mature fruits have significantly less liquid than young immature coconuts, barring spoilage.

Coconut milk

Coconut milk is made by processing grated coconut with hot water or milk, which extracts the oil and aromatic compounds. It should not be confused with coconut water, and has a fat content around 17%. When refrigerated and left to set, coconut cream will rise to the top and separate from the milk. The milk is used to produce virgin coconut oil by controlled heating and removing the oil fraction. Virgin coconut oil is found superior to the oil extracted from copra for cosmetic purposes.
The leftover fiber from coconut milk production is used as livestock feed.

Toddy and nectar

The sap derived from incising the flower clusters of the coconut is drunk as neera, or fermented to produce palm wine, also known as "toddy" or tuba (Philippines), tuak (Indonesia and Malaysia) or karewe (fresh and not fermented, collected twice a day, for breakfast and dinner) in Kiribati. The sap can be reduced by boiling to create a sweet syrup or candy, too — as te kamamai in Kiribati.
Coconut nectar is an extract from the young bud, a very rare type of nectar collected and used as morning break drink in the islands of Maldives, and is reputed to have energetic power, keeping the "raamen" (nectar collector) healthy and fit even over 80 or 90 years old. A by-product, a sweet honey-like syrup called dhiyaa hakuru is used as a creamy sugar for desserts.'Addu Bondi', a local candy made from boiled toddy and coconut scrap in the southernmost atoll, Addu Atoll .

"Millionaire's Salad" and coconut sprout

Apical buds of adult plants are edible, and are known as"palm-cabbage" or heart-of-palm. They are considered a rare delicacy, as harvesting the buds kills the palms. Hearts of palm are eaten in salads, sometimes called "millionaire's salad".
Newly germinated coconuts contain an edible fluff of marshmallow-like consistency called coconut sprout, produced as the endosperm nourishes the developing embryo.

Philippines and Vietnam

Coconut Palace, Manila, Philippines
In the Philippines, rice is wrapped in coconut leaves (lukay) for cooking and subsequent storage; these packets are called puso.

Coconut milk, also known as gata in the Philippines, and coconut flakes are popularly used for cookings, such as the food like Laing, Ginataan, Bibingka, Coconut Rice, Ube Halaya, Pich Pichi, Palitaw, Cassava Cake and many more.

In Vietnam, coconut is grown mainly in Ben Tre Province, often called the "land of the coconut". It is used to make coconut candy, caramel and jelly.

Coconut juice and coconut milk are used, especially in Vietnam's Southern style of cooking, including kho and chè.

India

South Indian dish - Idli and Coconut Chutney
In Kerala, many dishes include coconut. The most common way of cooking vegetables is to add grated coconut and then steam them with spices after frying in a little oil. Dishes that are garnished with grated coconut are generally referred to as Poduthol in North Malabar and "thoran" in rest of Kerala.
People from Kerala make "Chutney", which involves grinding the coconut with salt, chillies, and whole spices.

The Uruttu Chammanthi is eaten with rice or kanji (rice gruel).
Coconut meat is used as a snack and is eaten with jaggery or molasses.
Puttu is a culinary delicacy of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, in which layers of coconut alternate with layers of powdered rice, all of which fit into a bamboo stalk. In recent times this has been replaced with steel or aluminium tubes, which is then steamed over a pot.

Daily at least one coconut is broken in the middle class families in Tamil Nadu for food.
Invariably the main side dish served with Idli, Vadai, and Dosai is Coconut chutney.
Coconut ground with spices is mixed in sambar and other various lunch dishes for extra taste.

Industrial and commercial use This section needs additional citations for verification.
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Coir

Coir (the fiber from the husk of the coconut) is used in ropes, mats, brushes, caulking boats and as stuffing fiber; it is used in horticulture in potting compost. It is used especially in orchid mix.
Coir is used in mattresses at Kerala, in India. Tamil Nadu stands first in the manufacture of brown fiber, and is second to Kerala in the fiber production in India. The number of coir industries in Tamil Nadu is 5,399.

Rural women processing coir threads at Kerala, India

Coconut leaves

The stiff mid-ribs of coconut leaves are used for making brooms in India, Indonesia and Malaysia (called 'Sapu Lidi' in the latter). The green of the leaves (lamina) are stripped away leaving the vein (a wooden-like, thin, long strip) which are tied together form a broom. A long handle made from some other wood may be inserted into the base of the bundle and used as a two-handed broom.

The leaves provide materials for baskets and roofing thatch.
Leaves can be woven into roofing or mats.
Leaves are woven into a basket that can draw well water.

Two leaves (especially the younger, yellowish shoots) weaved into a tight shell the size of the palm and infill with rice and cooked - also known as "ketupat" in Malay archipelago.
Dried coconut leaves can be burned to ash, which can be harvested for lime.
The stiff leaflet midribs can be used to make cooking skewers, kindling arrows, or are bound into bundles, brooms and brushes.

The mid-rib of the coconut leaf is used as a tongue-cleaner in Kerala.
In India, particularly in Kerala and Tamil Nadu, the woven coconut leaves are used as 'pandals' (temporary sheds) for the marriage functions.

Copra

Coconuts sundried for making copra, used for coconut oil at Kerala, India

A wall made from coconut husks

Extracting the fiber from the husk (Sri Lanka)

Copra is the dried meat of the seed and, after further processing, is a source of low grade coconut oil. Coconut oils are used to make soap.

Plant densities in Vanuatu for copra production are generally 9 meter, allowing a tree density of 100–160 trees per hectare.

Husks and shells

The husk and shells can be used for fuel and are a source of charcoal.
Dried half coconut shells with husks are used to buff floors. In the Philippines, it is known as "bunot", and in Jamaica it is simply called "coconut brush"

"Tempurung" as it is called in Malay language, used as soup dish and if fixed with a handle will become a ladle.
Activated carbon manufactured from coconut shell is considered superior to those obtained from other sources, mainly because of small macropores structure which renders it more effective for the adsorption of gas and vapor and for the removal of color, oxidants, impurities and odor of compounds.
Half coconut shells are used in theatre Foley sound effects work, banged together to create the sound effect of a horse's hoofbeats.

In the Philippines, dried half shells are used as a music instrument in a folk dance called maglalatik, a traditional dance about the conflicts for coconut meat within the Spanish era
Shirt buttons can be carved out of dried coconut shell. Coconut buttons are often used for Hawaiian Aloha shirts.

Dried half coconut shells are used as the bodies of musical instruments, including the Chinese yehu and banhu, along with the Vietnamese đàn gáo and Arabo-Turkic rebab.
In World War II, coastwatcher scout Biuki Gasa was the first of two from the Solomon Islands to reach the shipwrecked, wounded, and exhausted crew of Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109 commanded by future U.S. president John F. Kennedy. Gasa suggested, for lack of paper, delivering by dugout canoe a message inscribed on a husked coconut shell. This coconut was later kept on the president's desk, and is now in the John F. Kennedy Library.

Coconut trunk

Coconut trunks are used for building small bridges; they are preferred for their straightness, strength and salt resistance. In Kerala (India), coconut trunks are used for house construction.
Coconut timber comes from the trunk, and is increasingly being used as an ecologically sound substitute for endangered hardwoods. It has applications in furniture and specialized construction, notably in Manila's Coconut Palace.

Hawaiians hollowed the trunk to form drums, containers, or small canoes.
The "branches" (leaf petioles) are strong and flexible enough to make a switch. The use of coconut branches in corporal punishment was revived in the Gilbertese community on Choiseul in the Solomon Islands in 2005.

Coconut roots

The roots are used as a dye, a mouthwash, and a medicine for dysentery. A frayed-out piece of root can also be used as a toothbrush.


Use for worship

In the Ilocos region of northern Philippines, the Ilokano people fill two halved coconut shells with diket (cooked sweet rice), and place liningta nga itlog (halved boiled egg) on top of it. This ritual is known as niniyogan (niyog means coconut in Ilokano), and is an offering made to the deceased, and one's past ancestors. This accompanies the palagip (prayer to the dead).
A coconut  is an essential element of rituals in Hindu tradition, and often is decorated with bright metal foils and other symbols of auspiciousness.

It is offered during worship to a Hindu god or goddess. Irrespective of their religious affiliation, fishermen of India often offer it to the rivers and seas in the hopes of having bountiful catches.
In Hindu wedding ceremonies, a coconut is placed over the opening of a pot, representing a womb.
Hindus often initiate the beginning of any new activity by breaking a coconut to ensure the blessings of the gods and successful completion of the activity.

The Hindu goddess of well-being and wealth, Lakshmi, is often shown holding a coconut.
The coconut has a role in Indian daily life. In South India, for all the functions, where prayer take place, there, the Hindus, keep the coconut and banana, along with other 'Pooja' materials, and break open the coconut and after that only any kind of Pooja / prayers / activities will be started.

In the Temple Town Palani, before going for the worship of God Murugan, at the foot hills of Palani Hills, for the Ganesha, a coconut will be broken at the place where it is marked for that purpose. Every day, thousands of coconuts are broken, and some devotees break even 108 coconuts at a time as per the prayer.
In tantric practices, coconuts are sometimes used as substitutes for human skulls.

Coconut used at the time of Kaveri River worship at Tiruchirappalli, India

Decoration

The Zulu Social Aid and Pleasure Club of New Orleans traditionally throws hand decorated coconuts—the most valuable of Mardi Gras souvenirs—to parade revelers. The "Tramps" began the tradition ca. 1901. In 1987, a "coconut law" was signed by Gov. Edwards exempting from insurance liability any decorated coconut handed from a Zulu float.

Making a rug from coconut fiber

Medicinal uses

It may help Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (due to lauric acid content?)

In rats, Virgin coconut oil reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, LDL, and VLDL cholesterol levels and increased HDL cholesterol in serum and tissues.

The hexane fraction of coconut peel may contain novel anticancer compounds (Hexane would best extract short chain fatty acids)

Young coconut juice has estrogen-like characteristics.

Coconut milk offered stronger protection on indomethacin-induced ulceration than coconut water in rats.

Coconut water has been used as an emergency short-term intravenous hydration fluid. This is possible because the coconut water has a high level of sugar and other salts that makes it possible to be used in the bloodstream, much like the modern lactated ringer solution or a dextrose/water solution as an IV.

Other uses

Sport fruits are also harvested, primarily in the Philippines, where they are known as macapuno. They are sold in jars as "gelatinous mutant coconut" cut into balls or strands.
Coconut water is traditionally used as a growth supplement in plant tissue culture/micropropagation.
The smell of coconuts comes from the 6-pentyloxan-2-one molecule, known as delta-decalactone in the food and fragrance industry.

Coconut is also commonly used as a traditional remedy in Pakistan to treat bites from rats.
The dried calyx of the coconut is used as fuel in wood fired stoves.
The fresh husk of a brown coconut is also used as a dish sponge or as a body sponge. Cocos nucifera cultivated in Brazil is known as "coco-da-Bahia" or "coqueiro-da-India". The tea from the husk fiber is widely used to several inflammatory disorders.

The inners are removed and the cases used to display food, such as fruit, for gifts in traditional rituals.
The nut is used as a target and prize in the traditional British fairground 'coconut shy' game. The player buys some small balls which he throws as hard as he can at the coconuts which are balanced on sticks. The aim is to knock a coconut off the stand and win it.

Shelter and tools

Researchers from the Melbourne Museum in Australia observed the octopus species Amphioctopus marginatus' use of tools, specifically coconut shells, for defense and shelter. The discovery of this behavior, observed in Bali and North Sulawesi in Indonesia between 1998 and 2008, was published in the journal Current Biology in December 2009. Amphioctopus marginatus is the first invertebrate known to be able to use tools.

A coconut can be hollowed out and used as a home for a rodent or small birds. Halved, drained coconuts can also be hung up as bird feeders, and after the flesh has gone, can be filled with fat in winter to attract tits.

Allergies

Food allergies

Coconut can be a food allergen. It is a top five food allergy in India where coconut is a common food source. On the other hand, food allergies to coconut are considered rare in Australia, the U.K., and U.S. As a result, commercial extracts of coconut are not currently available for skin prick testing in Australia or New Zealand.

Despite a low prevalence of allergies to coconut in the U.S., the U.S. Food and Drug Administration began identifying coconut as a tree nut in October 2006. Based on FDA guidance and federal U.S. law, coconut must be disclosed as an ingredient.

Topical allergies

Coconut-derived products can cause contact dermatitis. They can be present in cosmetics including some hair shampoos, moisturizers, soaps, cleansers and hand washing liquids. Coconut-derived products known to cause contact dermatitis include: coconut diethanolamide, cocamide sulphate, cocamide DEA, CDEA, Sodium Laureth Sulfate, Sodium Lauroyl Sulfate, Ammonium Laureth Sulfate, Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate, Sodium Lauroyl Sarcosinate, Sodium Cocoyl Sarcosinate, Potassium Coco Hydrolysed Collagan, TEA Triethanolamin Laureth Sulfate, Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride, Also watch TEA compounds (Triethanolamine) Laureth Sulfate, Lauryl or Cocoyl Sarcosime, Disodium Oleamide Sulfocuccina, Laureth Sulfasuccinate & Disodium Dioctyl Sulfosuccinate.