Wednesday, March 23, 2011

List of coconut palm diseases

# 1 Bacterial diseases
# 2 Fungal diseases
# 3 Virus and viroid diseases
# 4 Phytoplasmal diseases
# 5 Miscellaneous diseases and disorders

Erwinia is a genus of enterbacteriacea bacteria containing mostly plant pathoginic species which was named for the first phytobacteriologist, Erwin Smith. It is a gram negative bacterium related to E.coli, yersinia. It is primarily a rod-shaped bacteria. A well-known member of this genus is the species E -amvlovora, which causes fireblight on apple, pear, and other Rosaceous crops. Erwinia carotovora  is another species, which causes diseases in many plants. These species produce pectolytic enzymes that hydrolyze pectin between individual plant cells. This causes the cells to separate, a disease plant pathologists term bacterial soft rot.

Erwinia carotovora (Pectobacterium carotovorum)

This bacteria is a ubiquitous plant pathogen with a wide host range , able to cause disease in almost any plant tissue it invades. It is a very economically important pathogen in terms of postharvest losses, and a common cause of decay in stored fruits and vegetables. Decay caused by E. carotovora is often referred to as bacterial soft rot . Most plants or plant parts can resist invasion by the bacteria, unless some type of wound is present. High humidity and temperatures around 30°C favor development of decay. Mutants can be produced which are less virulent. Virulence factors include: pectinases, cellulases,

           # 2 Fungal diseases
Algal leaf spot ------    Cephaleuros virescens
Anthracnose --------    Glomerella cingulata
                             Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

Bitten leaf ------------    Ceratocystis paradoxa
                             Chalara paradoxa

Bipolaris leafspot-----     Bipolaris incurvata
Black scorch ------    Ceratocystis paradoxa
                             Chalara paradoxa [anomorph]

Bud rot -------                  Phytophthora palmivora
                             Phytophthora heveae
                             Phytophthora katsurae
                             Phytophthora nicotianae
                              Fusarium moniliforme
                              Fusarium solani
                               Graphium sp.

Catacauma leaf spot --------    Catacauma mucosum
Damping-off ------                   Fusarium spp.
                                             Phytophthora spp.
                                             Pythium spp.
                                               Rhizoctonia solani

Dry basal rot ------                     Ceratocystis paradoxa
                                             Chalara paradoxa

Ganoderma butt rot ---------    Ganoderma boninense
                                            Ganoderma tornatum
                                            Ganoderma zonatum

Graphiola leaf spot ----------    Graphiola phoenicis
Gray leaf blight-----     Pestalotiopsis palmarum
Koleroga --------    Phytophthora arecae
Leaf blight --------    Cytospora palmarum
Leaf spots ---------    Alternaria sp.
                            Botryosphaeria disrupta
                              Capitorostrum cocoes
                             Cercospora sp.
                             Curvularia lunata
                              Cylindrocladium pteridis
                               Drechslera gigantea
                              Drechslera halodes
                               Epicoccum nigrum
                                 Helminthosporium sp.
                                Macrophoma sp.
                                  Macrosporium cocos
                                       Melanconium sp.
                                     Mycosphaerella palmicola
                                       Periconiella cocoes
                                       Pseudoepicoccum cocos
                                         Phomopsis sp.
                                           Phyllosticta palmetto
                                          Ramularia necator

Virus and viroid diseases

Cadang-cadang Coconut cadang-cadang viroid
Foliar decay SS-DNA, identity uncertain
Tinangaja Coconut tinangaja viroid

    Phytoplasmal diseases                                                               
Awka disease Phytoplasma
Blast Phytoplasma suspected
Cape St. Paul wilt Phytoplasma
Cedros wilt Phytomonas stahellii
Heart rot Phytomonas stahellii
Kaincope disease Phytoplasma
Kalimantan wilt Phytoplasma suspected
Kribi disease Phytoplasma
Lethal decline Phytoplasma
Lethal disease Phytoplasma
Lethal yellowing Phytoplasma
Pudricion del cogollo Phytoplasma
Root wilt disease Phytoplasma
Stem necrosis Phytoplasma suspected

Miscellaneous diseases and disorders

Dry bud rot Not known, but possibly vectored by the insects Sogatella kolophon and S. yubana

Frond rot Physiological disorder

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