Friday, April 15, 2011

potato diseases

List of potato diseases


This is a list of diseases and disorders found in potatoes.

Contents

  • 1 Bacterial diseases
  • 2 Fungal diseases
  • 3 Viral and viroid diseases
  • 4 Nematode parasitic
  • 5 Phytoplasmal diseases
  • 6 Miscellaneous diseases and disorders 

Bacterial diseases

Bacterial Diseases
Bacterial wilt = brown rot Ralstonia solanacearum
= Pseudomonas solanacearum
Blackleg and bacterial soft rot Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum
= Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica
Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum
= E. carotovora subsp. carotovora
Pectobacterium chrysanthemi
= E. chrysanthemi
Pink eye Pseudomonas fluorescens
Ring rot Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus
= Corynebacterium sepedonicum
Common scab photos of diseases Streptomyces scabiei
= S. scabies
Streptomyces acidiscabies
Streptomyces turgidiscabies
Zebra chip = Psyllid yellows 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum'

Fungal diseases

Fungal diseases
Black dot Colletotrichum coccodes
= Colletotrichum atramentarium
Brown spot and Black pit Alternaria alternata
= Alternaria tenuis
Cercospora leaf blotch Mycovellosiella concors
= Cercospora concors
Cercospora solani
Cercospora solani-tuberosi
Charcoal rot Macrophomina phaseolina
= Sclerotium bataticola
Choanephora blight Choanephora cucurbitarum
Common rust Puccinia pittieriana
Deforming rust Aecidium cantensis
Early blight Alternaria solani
Fusarium dry rot Fusarium spp.
Gibberella pulicaris
= Fusarium solani
Other Fusarium spp. include:
Fusarium avenaceum
Fusarium oxysporum
Fusarium culmorum
Less common Fusarium spp. include:
Fusarium acuminatum
Fusarium equiseti
Fusarium crookwellense
Fusarium wilt Fusarium spp.
Fusarium avenaceum
Fusarium oxysporum
Fusarium solani f.sp. eumartii
Gangrene Phoma solanicola f. foveata
Phoma foveata
= Phoma exigua var. foveata
= Phoma exigua f. sp. foveata
Phoma exigua var. exigua
Gray mold Botrytis cinerea
Botryotinia fuckeliana [teleomorph]
Late blight Phytophthora infestans
Leak Pythium spp.
Pythium ultimum var. ultimum
= Pythium debaryanum
Pythium aphanidermatum
Pythium deliense
Phoma leaf spot Phoma andigena var. andina
Pink rot Phytophthora spp.
Phytophthora cryptogea
Phytophthora drechsleri
Phytophthora erythroseptica
Phytophthora megasperma
Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica
Powdery mildew Erysiphe cichoracearum
Powdery scab Spongospora subterranea f.sp. subterranea
Rhizoctonia canker and black scurf Rhizoctonia solani
Thanatephorus cucumeris [teleomorph]
Rosellinia black rot Rosellinia sp.
Dematophora sp. [anamorph]
Septoria leaf spot Septoria lycopersici var. malagutii
Silver scurf Helminthosporium solani
Skin spot Polyscytalum pustulans
Stem rot (southern blight) Sclerotium rolfsii
Athelia rolfsii [teleomorph]
Thecaphora smut Angiosorus solani
= Thecaphora solani
Ulocladium blight Ulocladium atrum
Verticillium wilt Verticillium albo-atrum
Verticillium dahliae
Wart Synchytrium endobioticum
White mold Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

Viral and viroid diseases

Viral and viroid diseases
Alfalfa mosaic virus genus Alfamovirus, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV)
Andean potato latent virus genus Tymovirus, Andean potato latent virus (APLV)
Andean potato mottle virus genus Comovirus, Andean potato mottle virus (APMV)
Arracacha virus B - Oca strain genus Nepovirus, Arracacha virus B Oca strain (AVB-O)
Beet curly top virus genus Curtovirus, Beet curly top virus (BCTV)
Cucumber mosaic virus genus Cucumovirus, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)
Eggplant mottle dwarf virus genus Rhabdovirus, Eggplant mottle dwarf virus (EMDV)
Potato aucuba mosaic virus genus Potexvirus, Potato aucuba mosaic virus (PAMV)
Potato black ringspot virus genus Nepovirus, Potato black ringspot virus (PBRSV)
Potato deforming mosaic virus genus Geminiviridae Potato deforming mosaic virus subgroup III, (PDMV)
Potato latent virus genus Carlavirus, Potato latent virus (PLV)
Potato leafroll virus genus Luteovirus, Potato leafroll virus (PLRV)
Potato mop-top virus (spraing of tubers) genus Furovirus, Potato mop-top virus (PMTV)
Potato rugose mosaic genus Potyvirus, Potato virus Y (PVY, strains O, N and C)
Potato stem mottle (spraing of tubers) genus Tobravirus, Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)
Potato spindle tuber Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTV)
Potato yellow dwarf virus genus Nucleorhabdovirus, Potato yellow dwarf virus (PYDV)
Potato yellow mosaic virus genus Geminiviridae, Potato yellow mosaic virus (PYMV); subgroup III
Potato yellow vein virus Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV)
Potato yellowing virus genus Alfamovirus, Potato yellowing virus (PYV)
Potato virus A genus Potyvirus, Potato virus A (PVA)
Potato virus M genus Carlavirus, Potato virus M (PVM)
Potato virus S genus Carlavirus, Potato virus S (PVS)
Potato virus T genus Trichovirus, Potato virus T
Potato virus U genus Nepovirus, Potato virus U (PVU)
Potato virus V genus Potyvirus, Potato virus V (PVV)
Potato virus X genus Potexvirus, Potato virus X (PVX)
Potato virus Y genus Potyvirus, Potato virus Y (PVY)
Solanum apical leaf curling virus Geminiviridae, Solanum apical leaf curling virus (SALCV) subgroup III
Sowbane mosaic virus genus Sobemovirus, Sowbane mosaic virus (SoMV)
Tobacco mosaic virus genus Tobamovirus, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)
Tobacco necrosis virus genus Necrovirus, Tobacco necrosis virus (TNV)
Tobacco rattle virus genus Tobravirus, Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)
Tobacco streak virus genus Ilarvirus, Tobacco streak virus (TSV)
Tomato black ring virus genus Nepovirus, Tomato black ring virus (ToBRV)
Tomato mosaic virus genus Tobamovirus, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV)
Tomato spotted wilt virus genus Tospovirus, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)
Tomato yellow mosaic virus genus Geminiviridae, Tomato yellow mosaic virus (ToYMV) subgroup III
Wild potato mosaic virus genus Potyvirus, Wild potato mosaic virus (WPMV)

 Nematode parasitic

Nematode parasitic
Potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis
Globodera pallida
Lesion nematode Pratylenchus spp.
Pratylenchus brachyurus
Pratylenchus penetrans
Other species include:
Pratylenchus scribneri
Pratylenchus neglectus
Pratylenchus thornei
Pratylenchus crenatus
Pratylenchus andinus
Pratylenchus vulnus
Pratylenchus coffeae
Potato rot nematode Ditylenchus destructor
Root knot nematode Meloidogyne spp.
Meloidogyne hapla
Meloidogyne incognita
Meloidogyne javanica
Meloidogyne chitwoodi
Sting nematode Belonolaimus longicaudatus
Stubby-root nematode Paratrichodorus spp.
Trichodorus spp.

 Phytoplasmal diseases

 

Phytoplasmal diseases
Aster yellows Aster yellows group of phytoplasmas
Witches'-broom Witches’ broom phytoplasma
BLTVA The beet leafhopper-transmitted virescence agent

 Miscellaneous diseases and disorders

Miscellaneous diseases and disorders
Aerial tubers Phytoplasma infection or anything that constricts the stem, including but not limited to Rhizoctonia canker, heat necrosis, chemical injury, mechanical injury, wind injury
Air pollution injury Photochemical oxidants (primarily ozone), sulfur oxides
Black heart Oxygen deficiency of internal tuber tissue
Blackspot bruise Bruising, pressure contact
Elephant hide Roughening of tuber skin due to physiological or environmental causes
Hollow heart Excessively rapid tuber enlargement
Internal brown spot = heat necrosis Oxygen deficiency of tuber accompanying high soil temperature
Jelly end rot Carbohydrate translocation due to second growth
Physiological leaf roll Response to adverse environment
Psyllid yellows Toxic saliva of the potato (tomato) psyllid, Paratrioza cockerelli
Shatter bruise Mechanical damage to tuber
Skinning Mechanical damage to tuber

Exact cause(s) unknown, chemical injury, viruses or other pathogens.


Pesticides

During the crop year 2008, many of the certified organic potatoes produced in the United Kingdom and certified by the Soil Association as organic were sprayed with a copper pesticide to control potato blight (Phytophthora infestans).According to the Soil Association, the total copper that can be applied to organic land is 6 kg/ha/year.

According to an Environmental Working Group analysis of USDA and FDA pesticide residue tests performed from 2000 through 2008, 84% of the 2,216 tested potato samples contained detectable traces of at least one pesticide. A total of 36

unique pesticides were detected on potatoes over the 2,216 samples, though no individual sample contained more than 6 unique pesticide traces, and the average was 1.29 detectable unique pesticide traces per sample.

The average quantity of all pesticide traces found in the 2,216 samples was 1.602 ppm. While this is a very low value of pesticide residue, it is the highest amongst the 50 vegetables analyzed.

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