Monday, May 2, 2011

nutritional value of mustards





The amounts of various nutrients in mustard seed are to be found in the USDA National Nutrient Database. As a condiment, mustard averages approximately five calories per teaspoon. Some of the many vitamins and nutrients that mustard seeds are high in are selenium and omega 3.

packaging of mustards



Prepared mustard is generally sold at retail in glass jars or plastic bottles although in Europe it is often marketed in metal, squeezable tubes.

In Poland, during the early communist period, mustard was sold in small glass jars without twist opening. In the communist economy almost all commodities were in shortage, so mustard jars ware commonly used as glasses ("musztardówka" in Polish). This resulted in the phenomenon of "mustard glasses," used mostly for vodka.[citation needed] Similarly in Germany, most mustard brands package the mustard in a drinking-glass shaped jar, and indeed Bautzner Senf has produced promotional series' of decorated jars featuring childrens' tv characters, with a view to them being used as children's drinking vessels.

storage of mustards

Because of its antibacterial properties, mustard does not require refrigeration; it will not grow mold, mildew or harmful bacteria. Unrefrigerated mustard will lose pungency more quickly, and should be stored in a tightly sealed, sterilized container in a cool, dark place. Mustard can last indefinitely, though it may dry out, lose flavor, or brown from oxidation. Mixing in a small amount of wine or vinegar will often revitalize dried out mustard. Some types of prepared mustard stored for a long time may separate, causing mustard water, which can be corrected by stirring or shaking. If stored for a long time, unrefrigerated mustard can acquire a bitter taste.

Culinary Uses of Mustards


Mustard is often used at the table as a condiment on meat. It is also used as an ingredient in mayonnaise, vinaigrette, marinades and barbecue sauce. It can also be used as a base for salad dressing when combined with vinegar and/or olive oil. Mustard is a popular accompaniment to hot dogs, pretzels, and Bratwurst. Mustard is also an emulsifier which can stabilize a mixture of two or more unblendable liquids such as oil and water. Added to Hollandaise sauce, mustard can reduce the possibility of curdling.

Dry mustard, typically sold in cans, is used in cooking and can be mixed with water to become prepared mustar

introduction to mustards



Mustard is a condiment made from the seeds of a mustard plant (white or yellow mustard, Sinapis hirta; brown or Indian mustard, Brassica juncea; or black mustard, Brassica nigra). The whole, ground, cracked, or bruised mustard seeds are mixed with water, vinegar or other liquids, and sometimes other flavorings and spices, to create a thick paste ranging in color from bright yellow to dark brown. Mustard often has a sharp, pungent flavor, as mixing the ground seed with cold liquid allows the enzyme myrosinase which it contains to act on glucosinolates also present to make isothiocyanates, responsible for mustard's characteristic heat.

Homemade mustards are often far hotter and more intensely flavored than commercial preparations.A strong mustard can cause the eyes to water, sting the palate and inflame the nasal passages and throat. Mustard can also cause allergic reactions: since 2005, products in the European Union must be labelled as potential allergens if they contain mustard.

Commonly paired with meats and cheeses, mustard is also a popular addition to sandwiches, hamburgers, and hot dogs. It is also used as an ingredient in many dressings, glazes, sauces, soups, and marinades; as a cream or a seed, mustard is used in the cuisine of India, the Mediterranean, the Caribbean, northern Europe, the Balkan States, Asia, North America, and Africa, making it one of the most popular and widely used spices and condiments in the world.Contents

Notable mustard manufacturers

1 Austria
2 Belgium
3 Croatia
4 Colombia
5 Finland
6 France
7 Germany
8 Netherlands
9 Poland
10 Serbia
11 Slovenia
12 Switzerland
13 Turkey
14 United Kingdom
15 United States

Etymology

The English word "mustard" derives from the Anglo-Norman mustarde and Old French mostarde. The first element is ultimately from Latin mustum, ("must", young wine) - the condiment was originally prepared by making the ground seeds into a paste with must. It is first attested in English in the late 13th century, though it is found as a surname a century earlier.

History

Romans were probably the first to experiment with the preparation of mustard as a condiment. They mixed unfermented grape juice, known as "must", with ground mustard seeds (called sinapis) to make "burning must", mustum ardens — hence "must ard". A recipe for mustard appears in Apicius (also called De re coquinaria), the anonymously compiled Roman cookbook from the late 4th or early 5th century; the recipe calls for a mixture of ground mustard, pepper, caraway, lovage, grilled coriander seeds, dill, celery, thyme, oregano, onion, honey, vinegar, fish stock, and oil, and was intended as a glaze for spit-roasted boar.

The Romans likely exported mustard seed to Gaul, and by the 10th century, monks of St. Germain des Pres in Paris absorbed the mustard-making knowledge of Romans and began their own production. The first appearance of mustard makers on the royal registers in Paris dates back to 1292. Dijon, France, became a recognized centre for mustard making by the 13th century. The popularity of mustard in Dijon is evidenced by written accounts of guests consuming 70 gallons of mustard creme in a single sitting at a gala held by the Duke of Burgundy in 1336. In 1777, one of the most famous Dijon mustard makers, Grey-Poupon, was established as a partnership between Maurice Grey, a mustard maker with a unique recipe containing white wine, and Auguste Poupon, his financial backer. Their success was aided by the introduction of the first automatic mustard making machine. In 1937, Dijon mustard was granted an Appellation d'origine contrôlée. Due to its long tradition of mustard making, Dijon is regarded[by whom?] as the mustard capital of the world

An early use of mustard as a condiment in England was in the form of mustard balls—coarse ground mustard seed combined with flour and cinnamon, moistened, rolled into balls, and dried—which were easily stored and combined with vinegar or wine to make mustard paste as needed. The town of Tewkesbury was well known for its high-quality mustard balls, which were exported to London and other parts of the country, and are even mentioned in William Shakespeare's play King Henry the Fourth, Part II.



The use of mustard as a hot dog condiment was first seen at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair, when the bright yellow French's mustard was introduced by the R.T. French Company.

Preparation and varieties

Mustard, yellowNutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 276 kJ (66 kcal)
Carbohydrates 8 g
- Sugars 3 g
- Dietary fiber 3 g
Fat 3 g
Protein 4 g
Sodium 1120 mg (49%)
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database


There are many varieties of mustard which come in a wide range of strengths and flavors. The basic taste and "heat" of the mustard is largely determined by seed type, preparation and ingredients. Black seeded mustard is generally regarded as the hottest type. Preparation also plays a key role in the final outcome of the mustard. Mustard, in its powdered form, lacks any potency and needs to be fixed; it is the production of allyl isothiocyanate from the reaction of myrosinase and sinigrin during soaking that causes gustatory heat to emerge. One of the factors that determines the strength of a prepared mustard is the temperature of the water, vinegar, or other liquid mixed with the ground seeds: hotter liquids are more hostile to the strength-producing compounds. Thus, hot mustard is made with cold water, while using hot water results in milder mustard (other factors remaining the same).

The pungency of mustard is always reduced by heating, not just at the time of preparation; if added to a dish during cooking much of the effect of the mustard is lost.

Locations renowned for their mustard include Dijon (medium strength) and Meaux in France; Norwich (very hot) and Tewkesbury, famed for its variety, in the United Kingdom; and Düsseldorf (hot) and Bavaria in Germany. There are variations in the subsidiary spices and in the preparation of the mustard seeds. The husks may be ground with the seeds, or winnowed away after the initial crushing; "whole-grain mustard" retains some unground or partially ground mustard seeds. Bavarian "sweet mustard" contains very little acid, substituting copious amounts of sugar for preservation. Sometimes prepared mustard is simmered to moderate its bite, sometimes it is aged. Irish mustard is a wholegrain type blended with whiskey, stout (commonly Guinness), and/or honey.

Basic mustards

Basic mustards are the most commonly consumed and often simplest of the mustard varieties, including mustard seed, dry mustard powder, spicy brown/deli-style mustard, Dijon mustard, stone-ground mustard, whole-grain mustard, and yellow mustard.

Mustard oil

While most mustards contain the whole seed ground, the oils can be extracted from the chaff and meal of the seed. Mustard oil is used where the normal consistency of ground mustard seeds is undesirable. Very concentrated, it is used in food preparation rather than a post-preparation condiment.

Yellow mustard
 

Yellow mustard is the most commonly used mustard in the United States and Canada, where it is sometimes referred to simply as "mustard". Outside North America it is called American mustard. This is a very mild mustard colored bright yellow by the inclusion of turmeric. It was introduced in 1904 by George T. French as "cream salad mustard". This mustard is closely associated with hot dogs, sandwiches, and hamburgers. Along with its use on various sandwiches, yellow mustard is a key ingredient in many potato salads, barbecue sauces, and salad dressings. Yellow mustard is often rubbed on barbecue meat prior to applying a dry rub, to form a crust, called bark, on the meat.

Spicy brown/deli-style mustard

Spicy brown or "deli style" mustard is also commonly used in the United States. The seeds are coarsely ground, giving it a speckled brownish yellow appearance. It is generally spicier than yellow mustard. Spicy brown or "deli style" or Indian mustard is used in the cuisine of India.

American beer mustard

American beer mustard, substituting beer for vinegar, originated in the 20th century somewhere in the Midwest and has remained a popular local condiment.

Dijon mustard

Store brand Dijon mustard in a squeeze bottle.

Dijon mustard is not covered by a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) or a Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) under the auspices of the European Union; thus, while there are major mustard plants in Dijon and suburbs, most Dijon mustard is manufactured outside of Dijon.

Dijon mustard originated in 1856, when Jean Naigeon of Dijon substituted verjuice, the acidic "green" juice of not-quite-ripe grapes, for vinegar in the traditional mustard recipe.

Mustards from Dijon today generally contain both white wine and red wine. Mustards marketed as Dijon style may contain one or both of these wines or may substitute vinegar or another acid in order to conform to local laws.

Whole grain mustards

In whole grain mustard, the seeds are not ground, but mixed whole with other ingredients. Different flavors and strengths can be achieved by using different blends of mustard seed species. Some variations have additives such as sun-dried tomato mustard and chili mustard.

Sweet mustards

Variations of sweet mustards include honey mustard, spiced honey mustard, brown sugar and pecan mustard, prickly pear honey mustard, maple mustard, sesame ginger mustard, and sweet and hot mustard.

Honey mustard

This honey mustard has added peppers and spices.

Honey mustard, as the name suggests, is a blend of mustard and honey, usually 1:1. It is most often used as a topping for sandwiches and as a dip for chicken strips, french fries, onion rings, and other finger foods. It can also be combined with vinegar and/or olive oil to make a salad dressing. The most basic honey mustard is a mixture of equal amounts of honey and mustard; however, most varieties include other ingredients to modify the flavor and texture. Combinations of English mustard with honey or demerara sugar are popularly used in British cuisine to coat grilled lamb cutlets or pork chops. Peppers and spices are sometimes added to give honey mustard a distinct hot and spicy taste.

Fruit mustards

Although the combination of fruit and mustard may seem unusual, it has been done since the Italian creation of mostarda di frutta in the 14th century. Large chunks of fruit preserved in a sweet, hot mustard syrup were served with meat and game, and were said to be a favorite of the Dukes of Milan. Variations of fruit mustards include apple mustard, apricot-ginger mustard, berry mustard, cranberry mustard, lemon mustard, orange and honey mustard, and pineapple and honey mustard.

Herb mustards

Variations of herb mustards include basil mustard, dill mustard, fennel mustard, garlic mustard, lemon-dill mustard, peppercorn mustard, roasted garlic mustard, rosemary mustard, rosemary-mint mustard, tarragon mustard, and tomato-basil mustard.

Hot mustards

Variations of hot mustards include chipotle pepper, habanero pepper, horseradish, and jalapeño mustards. However, generally speaking, "hot mustards" do not refer to mustards with chili peppers added. Instead, the term usually refers to the mustards which have been prepared in such a way to bring out the natural piquancy created by the myrosinase and two sulfur compounds, myrosin and sinigrin, that are naturally present in mustard seeds. When mustard seeds are crushed and mixed with cold water, these compounds break down to form a volatile oil which vaporizes to produce the "hot" sensation one experiences when consuming hot mustards. Usually, additives like flour are used by manufacturers to tone down this natural spicy/pungent flavor to produce the milder mustards popularly consumed. However, certain brands and manufacturers strive for mustards which produce a pungent and sharp flavor by using the more pungent black or brown mustard seeds rather than the white mustard seeds used to make mild mustards.The heat of mustard also dissipates with time and if the mustard is exposed to heat. That is why hot mustard manufacturers often use cold water and/or add an acidic agent to preserve the heat of the mustard. Hot mustard can also be made from dried mustard powder. In its powder form, the chemicals responsible for mustard's pungent flavor do not evaporate or disappear and can thus be stored for much longer periods of time.

Horseradish mustard

Horseradish mustard contains horseradish as well as mustard. The horseradish adds a sour flavor plus additional heat. Horseradish mustard is generally available as either mild or hotter than English mustard. 

Old World mustards
Variations of Old World mustards include English mustard, Dutch mustard, French Dijon mustard, Polish mustard, Russian mustard, Tewkesbury horseradish mustard, Swedish mustard, and sweet or hot Austrian, Bavarian, and German mustards.

Spirited mustards

Spirited mustards have added alcoholic spirits or beer for added flavor, but do not contain alcohol. Variations include Arran mustards with highland malt scotch, brandied peach mustard, cognac mustard, Irish "pub" mustard, Jack Daniel's mustard, and stout mustard.

Irish mustard

Irish mustard is a blend of wholegrain mustard with honey and/or Irish whiskey.

Australian mustard

Popular at the quintessential Australian barbecue, prepackaged mustard marketed as "Australian" is equal parts English yellow mustard mixed with equal parts wholegrain mustard, which results in a texture between the two.

Russian mustard

Russian mustard is a sharp, strong version of mustard, prepared with a high acid vinegar.

Miscellaneous mustards

There are so many varieties of mustard that some are not easily classified, including balsamic mustard, black olive mustard, sun-dried tomato mustard, and Maui onion mustard.


Sunday, May 1, 2011

guava cultivation

Guava cultivation


        Guavas are plants in the myrtle family (Myrtaceae) genus Psidium (meaning "pomegranate" in Latin),which contains about 100 species of tropical shrubs and small trees. They are native to Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. Guavas are now cultivated and naturalized throughout the tropics and subtropics in Southeast Asia, Hawaii, the Caribbean, Florida and Africa.Contents
1 Types
2 Common names
3 Ecology and uses
3.1 Cultivation for fruit
3.1.1 Guava fruit
3.2 Culinary uses
3.3 Nutritional value
3.4 Potential medical uses
4 Selected species
4.1 Formerly placed here
5 See also
6 Footnotes
7 References
8 External links


Types

The most frequently encountered species, and the one often simply referred to as "the guava", is the Apple Guava (Psidium guajava)

Guavas are typical Myrtoideae, with tough dark leaves that are opposite, simple, elliptic to ovate and 5–15 cm long. The flowers are white, with five petals and numerous stamens.

The genera Accara and Feijoa (= Acca, Pineapple Guava) were formerly included in Psidium.

Common names

bengal guava-flower

The term "guava" appears to derive from Arawak guayabo "guava tree", via the Spanish guayaba. It has been adapted in many European languages: guava (Romanian, Swedish, Danish and Norwegian, also Greek Γκουάβα and Russian Гуава), Guave (Dutch and German), goyave (French), gujawa (Polish), goiaba (Portuguese)



Outside of Europe, the Arabic jwafa, the Japanese guaba , the Tamil "koiyaa" , the Tongan kuava and probably also the Tagalog bayabas are ultimately derived from the Arawak term.

Another term for guavas is pera or variants thereof. It is common around the western Indian Ocean and probably derives from Spanish or Portuguese, which means "pear", or from some language of southern India, though it is so widespread in the region that its origin cannot be clearly discerned any more. Pera itself is used in Malayalam, Sinhala and Swahili. In Marathi it is peru, in Bengali pearah , in Kannada it is pearaley,  and in Dhivehi feyru. In Telugu language it is "Jama kaya".

Additional terms for guavas from their native range are, for example, sawintu (Quechua) and xālxocotl (Nāhuatl)

Ecology and uses

Apple Guava (Psidium guajava) flower

Psidium species are used as food plants by the caterpillars of some Lepidoptera, mainly moths like the Ello Sphinx (Erinnyis ello), Eupseudosoma aberrans, E. involutum, and Hypercompe icasia. Mites like Pronematus pruni and Tydeus munsteri are known to parasitize the Apple Guava (P. guajava) and perhaps other species. The bacterium Erwinia psidii causes rot diseases of the Apple Guava.

The fruit are not only relished by humans, but by many mammals and birds as well. The spread of introduced guavas owes much to this fact, as animals will eat the fruit and disperse the seeds in their droppings.

In several tropical regions, including Hawaii, some species (namely Strawberry Guava, P. littorale, and to a lesser extent Apple Guava Psidium guajava) have become invasive species. On the other hand, several species have become very rare due to habitat destruction and at least one (Jamaican Guava, P. dumetorum), is already extinct.

Guava wood is used for meat smoking in Hawaii and is being used at barbecue competitions across the United States. In Cuba the leaves are also used in barbecues, providing a smoked flavor and scent to the meat.

A full size guava tree in Oaxaca, Mexico.

Cultivation for fruit

Guavas are cultivated in many tropical and subtropical countries for their edible fruit. Several species are grown commercially; apple guava (P. guajava) and its cultivars are those most commonly traded internationally.

Psidium guajava 1-year seedling

Mature trees of most species are fairly cold-hardy and can survive as low as 5 °C (41 °F) for short periods of time, but younger plants will not survive. They are known to survive in Northern Pakistan where they can get down to 5°C or lower during the night. A few species - notably strawberry guavas - can survive temperatures several degrees below freezing for short periods of time.

Strawberry guava, 1 year old seedling

Guavas are also of interest to home growers in temperate areas, being one of the few tropical fruits that can grow to fruiting size in pots indoors. When grown from seed, guavas can bloom and bear fruit as soon as two years, or as long as eight years.

Guava fruit

Guava fruit, usually 4 to 12 cm long, are round or oval depending on the species. The outer skin may be rough, often with a bitter taste, or soft and sweet. Varying between species, the skin can be any thickness, is usually green before maturity, but becomes yellow, maroon, or green when ripe.

Guava fruit generally have a pronounced and typical fragrance, similar to lemon rind but less sharp. Guava pulp may be sweet or sour, off-white ("white" guavas) to deep pink ("red" guavas), with the seeds in the central pulp of variable number and hardness, depending on species.

Guavas in Larkana, Pakistan

Culinary uses

In Hawaii, guava fruit is eaten with soy sauce and vinegar. Occasionally, a pinch of sugar and black pepper are added to the soy sauce and vinegar mixture. The guava fruit is cut up and dipped into the sauce.

In Pakistan and India, guava fruit is often eaten raw, typically cut into quarters with a pinch of salt and pepper and sometimes cayenne powder/masala. Street vendors often sell guava fruit for a couple of rupees each.

The fruit is also often prepared as a dessert, in fruit salads. In Asia, fresh guava slices are often dipped in preserved prune powder or salt. In India it is often sprinkled with red rock salt, which is very tart.

Because of the high level of pectin, guavas are extensively used to make candies, preserves, jellies, jams, marmalades (Brazilian goiabada), and also for juices and aguas frescas.

Guava juice is very popular in Hawaii, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Colombia, Venezuela, Egypt, Mexico, and South Africa.

"Red" guavas can be used as the base of salted products such as sauces, substituting for tomatoes, especially for those sensitive to the latter's acidity. In Asia, a drink is made from an infusion of guava fruits and leaves. In Brazil, the infusion made with guava tree leaves (chá-de-goiabeira, i.e. "tea" of guava tree leaves) is considered medicinal.

Pests and Diseases of Guava


        Guava is hardy, aggressive, and a perennial that has only recently become a cultivated crop. The guava (Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae), is one of 150 species of Psidium most of which are fruit bearing trees native to tropical and subtropical America. The guava plant grows symmetrically dome-shaped with broad, spreading, low-branching canopy and a shallow-rooted small tree of 3 to 10 m in height, branching close to the ground and often heavily suckering from the base of the trunk. The green to reddish-brown and smooth bark on older branches and trunk peels off in thin flakes. The four-angled young twigs of guava are easily distinguished. The simple leaves of guava are opposite, 10 to 15 cm long, oval to oblong-elliptic, smooth, and light green in color.

Pests and Diseases of Guava
 
         Guava trees are seriously damaged by the citrus flat mite, Brevipa1pus californicus. The guava tree is attacked by 80 insect species, including 3 bark-eating caterpillars (Indarbella spp.) and the guava scale in India, but this and other scale insects are generally kept under control by their natural enemies. The green shield scale, Pulvinaria psidii, requires chemical measures in Florida, as does the guava white fly, Trialeurodes floridensis, and a weevil, Anthonomus irroratus, which bores holes in the newly forming fruits.


The red-banded thrips feed on leaves and the fruit surface. The larvae of the guava shoot borer penetrates the tender twigs, killing the shoots. Sometimes aphids are prevalent, sucking the sap from the underside of the leaves of new shoots and excreting honeydew on which sooty mold develops.


The guava fruit worm, Argyresthia eugeniella, invisibly infiltrates hard green fruits, and the citron plant bug, Theognis gonagia, the yellow beetle, Costalimaita ferruginea, and the fruit-sucking bug, Helopeltis antonii, feed on ripe fruits. A false spider mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis, causes surface russeting beginning when the fruits are half-grown. Fruit russeting and defoliation result also from infestations of red-banded thrips, Selenothrips rubrocinctus. The coconut mealybug, Pseudococcus nipae, has been a serious problem in Puerto Rico but has been effectively combatted by the introduction of its parasitic enemy, Pseudaphycus utilis.


The guava is a prime host of the Mediterranean, Oriental, Mexican, and Caribbean fruit flies, and the melon fly–Ceratitis capitata, Dacus dorsalis, Anastrepha ludens, A. suspensa, and Dacus cucurbitae. Ripe fruits will be found infested with the larvae and totally unusable except as feed for cattle and swine. To avoid fruit fly damage, fruits must be picked before full maturity and this requires harvesting at least 3 times a week.


In Puerto Rico, up to 50% of the guava crop (mainly from wild trees) may be ruined by the uncontrollable fungus, Glomerella cingulata, which mummifies and blackens immature fruits and rots mature fruits. Diplodia natalensis may similarly affect 40% of the crop on some trees in South India.


Fruits punctured by insects are subject to mucor rot (caused by the fungus, Mucor hiemalis) in Hawaii.
Algal spotting of leaves and fruits (caused by Cephaleuros virescens) occurs in some cultivars in humid southern Florida but can be controlled with copper fungicides. During the rainy season in India, and the Province of Sancti Spiritus, Cuba, the fungus, Phytophthora parasitica, is responsible for much infectious fruit rot.



Botryodiplodia sp. and Dothiorella sp. cause stem-end rot in fruits damaged during harvesting. Macrophomina sp. has been linked to fruit rot in Venezuela and Gliocladium roseum has been identified on rotting fruits on the market in India.

In Bahia, Brazil, severe deficiency symptoms of guava trees was attributed to nematodes and nematicide treatment of the soil in a circle 3 ft (0.9 in) out from the base restored the trees to normal in 5 months. Zinc deficiency may be conspicuous when the guava is grown on light soils. It is corrected by two summer sprayings 60 days apart with zinc sulphate.

Wilt, associated with the fungi Fusarium solani and Macrophomina phaseoli, brings about gradual decline and death of undernourished 1-to 5-year-old guava trees in West Bengal. A wilt disease brought about by the wound parasite, Myxosporium psidii, causes the death of many guava trees, especially in summer, throughout Taiwan. Anthracnose  may attack the fruits in the rainy season. Pestalotia psidii sometimes causes canker on green guavas in India and rots fruits in storage.

Severe losses are occasioned in India by birds and bats and some efforts are made to protect the crop by nets or noisemakers.

Food items from guava


      If life gives you guavas, you make guava juice. Life just gave me a couple of bags of guavas from a friend of a friend's prolific guava trees. What to you do with a gaggle of guavaI've never even eaten one, so I had to look it up. It's ok to eat the whole gauva, seeds and all. Just rinse it off, cut off the ends, and munch away. But my son likes guava juice, albeit the kind you buy in a can. I don't own a juicer or anything fancy like that. So I thought I'd try to make my own with basic kitchen equipment, a blender and strainer. This instructable documents what I did. Apparently, the guava is more exotic then I realized. The spell-checker wants me to change guava to cave.

Ingredients:
Guavas
Sugar
Water

Kitchen Tools:

Blender
Strainer
Knife
Measuring Cup
Cutting Board
Wooden Spoon
Container

Slicing and Dicing


Rinse off guavas.
Slice them up by cutting off the black parts at the end.
 Dice the guavas to fit in your blender.

Blend

Fill up the blender with diced guavas. 4 medium size guavas seems to do the trick. Fill up the blender about 2" from the top with water. Add sugar to taste. I used 1/4 of a cup the first time which was fine for me. Kids like more sugar and seemed to like it a lot better if I used 1/2 cup.

  Strain


 Set up the strainer over your container and pour the blended mixture in. The mixture tends to clog the strainer very quickly. In order to help it through the strainer, stir with a wooden spoon. Almost all of it goes through except the seeds and a little of the pulp.Repeat for all the juice in the blender. Other people have told me they just let the seeds settle and then skim but I think I'd have to make the mixture a little thinner.

Make Homemade Guava Jam

Guava Jam Recipe

3 C guavas (about 3)
3 C water
1 1/2 C sugar
1 Tbs vinegar
1 tsp lime juice
1/4 tsp salt


Peel and cut guavas into small pieces (about 1/2 inch pieces.) Transfer to a pot and add 2 C of water, sugar, vinegar, lime, and salt.

Bring to a boil (on high heat.) Then reduce heat to medium and boil for about 30 minutes.

Remove from stove and set aside to cool for 15 minutes.

Pour the mixture through a metal sifter (into a pan)to separate out the seeds. Use a spoon to force the mixture through the sifter. Pass the mixture through the sifter for a second time.

Transfer the guava mixture back into the pot. Add the remaining 1 C of water on medium high until just at a boil. Reduce heat to medium-low and simmer for about 30 minutes or until thickened.

Move pot from stove and set aside to cool. Transfer jam into jars and refrigerate. Jam will stiffen as it cools.

This recipe makes about 12 ounces. Of course you can increase the amount if you need to.

Tips

  • Jam should simmer at a very slow boil. Adjust the heat if necessary. If it is too high, the jam will burn. 
  • If you are making more jam than you can eat in a reasonable amount of time, seal the jars with paraffin.

Guava Cheese 

A chewy fudge-like sweet, Guava Cheese is best made with fresh guavas. They are a rich source of vitamin C - from 3-6 times more than in oranges to almost 30 times more than that found in bananas! Most of this vitamin C is found in the skin of the fruit.


Ingredients: 
  • 1 kg soft guavas
     
  • Sugar (amount based on how much pulp you get out of the guavas)

Preparation:
  • Cut the guavas into quarters and remove the seeds. 
  • Put the seeds in a sieve and add a small amount of water. Rub into the sieve and press down with a flat spoon so as to extract the pulp surrounding the seeds, into a bowl kept below the sieve. 
  • Blend the gauva pieces to s smooth pulp in your food processor. Measure how many cups of pulp you have - include the pulp removed from around the seeds. 
  • Put all the pulp into a large, flat, heavy-bottomed dish on a medium flame. 


  • Add sugar to the amount of one cup less than the number of cups of guava pulp. For example, if you had 6 cups of pulp, add 5 cups of sugar to it. 
  • Cook, stirring frequently, till it becoms hard to stir and the guava cheese begins to come away from the sides of the pan. 
  • Grease a platter and spoon the guava cheese onto it. Spread into a thick layer.
     
  • Allow to cool a little and while still warm, cut into diamond shapes. 
  • When completely cooled, store in an air-tight container.

GUAVA JELLY 

Ingredients:


1 1/2 kgs Guavas (Amrood)
6 cups Water
1/2 tsp Citric acid
Sugar (Cheeni)

How to make guava jelly:

  • Wash and cut guava into thin slices and cook with water until very soft.
    Put this mixture in a coarse cloth and allow the juice to drip through into a bowl
    underneath and leave it for 12 hours. 
  •  

  • Do not squeeze the bag.
    Use the mixture in the bag for guava cheese.
    Measure the juice and add 3 cups of sugar to each pint of juice. 

  • Heat the sugar, guava juice and stir until it is dissolved.
    Strain the juice, add lemon juice and cook on a hot fire until setting point is reached.
    Cool and pour into airtight jars.

Nutritional value of guava

Guavas are often included among superfruits, being rich in dietary fiber, vitamins A and C, folic acid, and the dietary minerals, potassium, copper and manganese. Having a generally broad, low-calorie profile of essential nutrients, a single common guava (P. guajava) fruit contains about four times the amount of vitamin C as an orange.
However, nutrient content varies across guava cultivars. Although the strawberry guava (P. littorale var. cattleianum), notably containing 90 mg of vitamin C per serving, has about 25% of the amount found in more common varieties,

its total vitamin C content in one serving still provides 100% of the Dietary Reference Intake for adult males.

'Thai maroon' guavas, a red apple guava cultivar, rich in carotenoids and polyphenols

Guavas contain both carotenoids and polyphenols like (+)-gallocatechin, guaijaverin, leucocyanidin and amritoside – the major classes of antioxidant pigments – giving them relatively high potential antioxidant value among plant foods.

As these pigments produce the fruit skin and flesh color, guavas that are red-orange have more pigment content as polyphenol, carotenoid and pro-vitamin A, retinoid sources than yellow-green ones.

Potential medical uses of guava


Since the 1950s, guavas – particularly the leaves – have been a subject for diverse research in chemical identity of their constituents, pharmacological properties and history in folk medicine. Most research, however, has been conducted on apple guava (P. guajava), with other species remaining undefined.

From preliminary medical research in laboratory models, extracts from apple guava leaves or bark are implicated in therapeutic mechanisms against cancer, bacterial infections, inflammation and pain. Essential oils from guava leaves display anti-cancer activity in vitro.

Guava leaves are used in folk medicine as a remedy for diarrhea and, as well as the bark, for their supposed antimicrobial properties and as an astringent. Guava leaves or bark are used in traditional treatments against diabetes. In Trinidad, a tea made from young leaves is used for diarrhea, dysentery and fever.