Tuesday, September 27, 2011

Drumsticks cultivation


Drumstick Tree- This name is also used for the Golden Shower Tree (Cassia fistulosa).
drumsticks
 
 
Scientific classification

Biological name : Moringa oleifera 
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Brassicales
Family: Moringaceae
Genus: Moringa
Species: M. oleifera
Moringa oleifera, the word Moringa probably came from dravidian language Tamil and commonly referred to as "Shojne" in Bengali, "Munagakaya" in Telugu, "Shenano" in Rajasthani, "Shevaga" in Marathi, "Nuggekai" in Kannada, "Moringa" (from Tamil: Murungakai, Malayalam: Muringa, Konkani: Mashinga sanga), and Malunggáy in Filipino, is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Moringa, which is the only genus in the family Moringaceae.

It is an exceptionally nutritious vegetable tree with a variety of potential uses. The tree itself is rather slender, with drooping branches that grow to approximately 10 m in height. In cultivation, it is often cut back annually to 1 meter or less and allowed to regrow so that pods and leaves remain within arm's reach.

The "Moringa" tree is grown mainly in semi-arid, tropical, and subtropical areas, corresponding in the United States to USDA 





hardiness zones 9 and 10. While it grows best in dry sandy soil, it tolerates poor soil, including coastal areas. It is a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree that is native to the southern foothills of the Himalayas in northwestern India. Reports that it grows wild in the Middle East or Africa are completely unsubstantiated. Today it is widely cultivated in Africa, Central and South America, Sri Lanka, India, Mexico,Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.
drumsticks sappling


 It is considered one of the world’s most useful trees, as almost every part of the Moringa tree can be used for food or has some other beneficial property. In the tropics, it is used as forage for livestock, and in many countries, Moringa micronutrient liquid, a natural anthelmintic (kills parasites) and adjuvant (to aid or enhance another drug) is used as a metabolic conditioner to aid against endemic diseases in developing countries.


Distribution

A traditional food plant in Africa, this little-known vegetable has potential to improve nutrition, boost food
security, foster rural development, and support sustainable landcare.


General nutrition

The leaves contains:
Ø      4 times as much Vitamin A as carrots
Ø      7 times as much Vitamin C as Oranges
Ø      Double as much proteins and calcium as milk.
Ø      And additionally Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B3,  Iron, Zinc, Potassium and many more minerals.
The immature green pods called “drumstick” are probably the most valued and widely used part of the tree. They are commonly consumed in India and are generally prepared in a similar fashion to green beans and have a slight asparagus taste. The seeds are sometimes removed from more mature pods and eaten like peas or roasted like nuts.
drumsticks seeds
The flowers are edible when cooked, and are said to taste like mushrooms. The roots are shredded and used as a condiment in the same way as horseradish; however, it contains the alkaloid spirochin, a potentially fatal
drumsticks seed
nerve-paralyzing agent. The presence of this compound is not worrying because large amounts are required to elicit deleterious effects, and spirochin even displays antibacterial properties when consumed in smaller amounts.
Drumsticks tree is very much useful for helth :



It has been found that giving young children Moringa leaves will improve their health and increase weight. Children who regular get Moringa leaves will have less risk for getting malnourished and the leaves help malnourished children to recover.

Pregnant mothers eating Moringa regularly have recovered from Anemia and give birth to healthier children with higher birth weight.
drumsticks flower
The leaves will assist people living with HIV to maintain health and to improve their immune system to fight diseases. The flowers and roots contain a compound called pterygospermin that has power full medical value.
drumstick tree with  ripen and green drumsticks
The leaves are highly nutritious, being a significant source of beta-carotene, Vitamin C, protein, iron, and potassium. The leaves are cooked and used like spinach. In addition to being used fresh as a substitute for spinach, its leaves are commonly dried and crushed into a powder, and used in soups and sauces.Murungakai, as it is locally known in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, is used in Siddha medicine. The tree is a good source for calcium and phosphorus. In Siddha medicines, these drumstick seeds are used as a sexual virility drug for treating erectile dysfunction in men and also in women for prolonging sexual activity.
drumsticks ready to cook
Moringa leaves and pods are helpful in increasing breast milk in the breastfeeding months. One tablespoon of leaf powder provide 14% of the protein, 40% of the calcium, 23% of the iron and most of the vitamin A needs of a child aged one to three. Six tablespoons of leaf powder will provide nearly all of the woman's daily iron and calcium needs during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
drumsticks flowers
Ben Oil (edible) from drumsticks seeds : Drumsticks nut oil wad used by ancient Egyptians. The drumsticks or moringa seeds yield 38–40% edible oil (called ben oil from the high concentration of behenic acid contained in the oil). The refined oil is clear and odorless and resists
ben oil (drumsticks oil)

rancidity at least as well as any other botanical oil. The seed cake remaining after oil extraction may be used as a fertilizer or as a flocculent to purify water.Oil can also be extracted from drumsticks flowers. The bark,
drumsticks flower fry

sap, roots, leaves, seeds, oil, and flowers are used intraditional medicine in several countries. In Jamaica, the sap is used for a blue dye.
Drumsticks flowers as vegetable :


This extremely fast growing woody species (Moringa oleifera, Moringaceae)  could open up a new category of crops: "vegetable trees." It also produces masses of very small leaflets that are boiled and eaten like spinach. Being so small, the leaflets sun dry in just a few hours and can then be put in a jar and stored for the off-season, a time when dietary minerals and vitamins are often scarce. Moringa seeds could be employed to make water safer for drinking and cooking. 

The flowers are  cooked and relished as a delicacy in West Bengal,India and
drumsticks flower cutlet
Bangladesh, especially during early spring. There it is called shojne ful and is usually cooked with green peas and potato.
drumsticks tree
Drumsticks leaves used as vegetable : Normally tender leaves are used  as vegetable . Leaves are
plucked from the tree  and separated from stems . Oil,green chilly,onion,garlic are normally used for preparation of delicious drumdticks leaves fry . In south India  coconuts are used to make it more delicious.

Malnutrition

Moringa trees have been used to combat malnutrition, especially among infants and nursing mothers. It is advocated  Moringa as "natural nutrition for the tropics." Leaves can be eaten fresh, cooked, or stored as dried powder for many months without refrigeration, and reportedly without loss of nutritional value. Moringa is especially promising as a food source in the tropics because the tree is in full leaf at the end of the dry season when other foods are typically scarce.
dry drumsticks with seeds
A large number of reports on the nutritional qualities of Moringa now exist in both the scientific and the popular literature. It is commonly said that Moringa leaves contain more Vitamin A than carrots, more calcium than milk, more iron than spinach, more Vitamin C than oranges, and more potassium than bananas,” and that the protein quality of Moringa leaves rivals that of milk and eggs. However, the leaves and stem of M. oleifera are known to have large amounts of their calcium bound in calcium oxalate crystals, which is not a form of calcium available to the body. Whether the claim of "more calcium than milk" includes this non-bioavailable calcium needs to be addressed. The oral histories recorded by Lowell Fuglie in Senegal and throughout West Africa report countless instances of life saving nutritional rescue that are attributed to Moringa.
drumsticks flowers
In fact, the nutritional properties of Moringa are now so well-known that there seems to be little doubt of the substantial health benefit to be realized by consumption of Moringa leaf powder in situations where starvation is imminent. Nonetheless, the outcomes of well-controlled and well-documented clinical studies would still be clearly of great value.
In many cultures throughout the tropics, differentiation between food and medicinal uses of plants (e.g. bark, fruit, leaves, nuts, seeds, tubers, roots, and flowers), is very difficult because plant uses span both categories, and this is deeply ingrained in the traditions and the fabric of the community.
In traditional Indian medicine, children and adults used to drink a cup of decoction (kasayam) every Sunday, normally after an oil bath, made of ginger, garlic, a piece of Murungai tree bark (Murungai pattai ..in Tamil) and Mavelingam tree bark (mavelinga pattai, and the root nodules of Kolinji plant (a leguminous plant with nitrogen nodules in the root).
Cultivation In the Philippines, Moringa is commonly grown for its leaves, which are used in soup. The leaves (called dahon ng malunggay in Tagalog, bulung malungge Kapampangan or dahon sa kamunggay in Cebuano) are commonly sold in local markets.
Philippines:
In the Philippines, Moringa is commonly grown for its leaves, which are used in soup. The leaves (called dahon ng malunggay in Tagalog, bulung malungge Kapampangan or dahon sa kamunggay in Cebuano) are commonly sold 


in local markets. In the Philippines, Moringa is commonly grown for its leaves, which are used in soup. The leaves (called dahon ng malunggay in Tagalog, bulung malungge Kapampangan or dahon sa kamunggay in Cebuano) are commonly sold in local markets.
drumsticks ready  for vegetable
Malunggáy is propagated by planting 1–2 m long limb cuttings, preferably from June to August. The plant starts bearing pods 6–8 months after planting, but regular bearing commences after the second year, continuing for several years. It can also be propagated by seeds, which are planted an inch below the surface and can be germinated year-round in well-draining soil.

As with all plants, optimum cultivation depends on producing the right environment for the plant to thrive. Malunggáy is a sun and heat-loving plant, and thus does not tolerate freeze or frost.
India :
India is the largest producer of Moringa, with an annual production of 1.1 to 1.3 million tonnes of tender fruits from an area of 380 km². Among the states, Andhra Pradesh leads in both area and production (156.65 km²) followed by Karnataka (102.8 km²) and Tamil Nadu (74.08 km²). In other states, it occupies an area of 46.13 km². Tamil Nadu is the pioneering state in so much as it has varied genotypes from diversified geographical areas and introductions from Sri Lanka.


young drumsticks tree
Moringa is common in India, where its triangular, ribbed pods with winged seeds are used as a vegetable crop. It is particularly suitable for dry regions. The drumstick can be grown using rainwater without expensive irrigation techniques. The yield is good even if the water supply is not. The tree can be grown even on land covered with 10–90 cm of mud.


Thailand :
Moringa is grown in home gardens and as living fences in Thailand, where it is commonly sold in local markets. 
Taiwan :
Moringa is also actively cultivated by the AVRDC in Taiwan. The AVRDC is "the principal international center for
drumsticks in tree
vegetable research and development in the world. Its mission is to reduce poverty and malnutrition in developing countries through improved production and consumption of vegetables."

Uses
Research has shown the drumstick tree to be of exceptional nutritional value. The leaves are 38% protein with the 8 essential amino acids, which will be of interest to vegetarians, or people who wish to cut back on meat and dairy products. Amino acids in leaves, indicated in milligrams per 100 grams have been recorded as: isoleucine 385, leucine 688, lysine 476, methionine 164, cystine 148, phenylalamine 483, threonine 368, valine 491, arganine 491, histidine 181.
Amino acids in green leaf vegetables vary considerably, and many that are staples, are low in the sulphur bearing amino acids methionine and cystine, whereas in the drumstick tree it is an extremely rich source in comparison to other greens and vegetables. The drumstick tree is listed as the highest protein ratio of any plant on earth. The calcium content is very high at 297mg per 100g of leaves.

Leaves can be eaten fresh in hand, steamed, pickled, added to salads, stir-fries, curries, and soups. Flavour of the pods are similar to peas with a mild mustard taste. Sliced, young green pods can be used in savory and meat dishes. Seeds can be fried or roasted and taste like peanuts. When seeds are abundant they can be sprouted like wheat grass, eaten as tender nutritious greens.

Roots of young seedlings taste similar to the herb horseradish, and are often grated and used as a substitute. Oil of Ben, a by-product of the seed, is an inodorous finegrade oil used in salads, cooking, perfumery, lubricating watches and fine machinery. The oil does not go rancid. Flowers can be eaten or used as a garnish, and look most decorative in salads. Value the tree for its high nutritional value and as a survival food.


The fruit of the tree is quite popular as a vegetable in Asia and Africa. The fruit is a long thin pod resembling a drum stick. The fruit itself is called drumstick in India and elsewhere. Moringa leaves are also eaten as a leaf vegetable, particularly in the Philippines, South India and Africa.

Medicinal Uses


A folk remedy for stomach complaints, catarrh, cancer, gastric ulcers, skin diseases, lowering blood sugar, increasing bone density, nervous conditions, diabetes, fatigue, increase lactation, hay fever, impotence,
edema, cramps, hemorrhoids, headaches, sore gums; to strengthen the eyes and the brain, liver, gall,
digestive, respiratory and immune system, and as a blood cleanser and blood builder.

A traditional folk remedy was to use the leaves as a poultice on the abdomen to expel intestinal worms. An infusion of leaves is used as an eye wash for treating conjunctivitis. Oil from the seed, called Oil of Ben, is
used for earache and in ointments for skin conditions. The oil rubbed on the skin is said to prevent
mosquitoes from biting. Flowers infused in honey are used as a cough remedy.


Pungent oil can be obtained from the roots of this tree that is more like mustard oil .Not only this the root
itself is very popular as it can be utilised as a cure for painful throats.Gum exuded from the wood of the
tree is used in Indian native medicine .A coarse fibre that is obtained from the bark of the tree is useful for
making mats ,paper and cordage .

India

drumsticks curry




Recipes from drumsticks:
drumsticks leaves fry


The Moringa pod is known as "munga", saragwa or saragwe in India and is often referred to as "drumstick" in 
drumsticks sambar


English. In South India, it is used to prepare a variety of sambar .


Maldives

The leaves are often fried and mixed with dried-fried tuna chips (Maldive fish), onions and dried chillies. This is equivalent to a sambar and eaten along with rice and curry or Garudhiya. The pods are called "Muranga Tholhi" and it is used to cook a mild curry called "Kiru Garudhiya".


Other uses

The tree's bark, roots, fruit, flowers, leaves, seeds, and gum are also used medicinally. Uses include as an antiseptic and in treating rheumatism, venomous bites, and other conditions.
Extract from the seeds is used as a flocculant in a low-cost form of water treatment. In February 2010, Current Protocols in Microbiology published a step by step extraction and treatment procedure to produce "90.00% to 99.99%" bacterial reduction. The seeds are also considered an excellent biofuel source for making biodiesel.

However,in Phillipines extensive research works have been done on medicinal properties of drumsticks tree .

Nutritional
• Flowers, young leaves and young pods eaten as a vegetable inn the Philippines, Malaya, and India.
• In Malaya, seeds also eaten as peanuts.
• Roots are used as seasoning because of it horseradish flavor.
• Young leaves are a rich source of calcium, iron, phosphorus and vitamins A, B and C.
• High in HDL (high density lipoproteins); a source of amino acids, omega oils, antioxidants.
• Young fruit yield a high amount of protein and phosphorus, a fair source of calcium and iron,
• Comparative content: Gram for gram, 7 times the vitamin C in oranges, 4 times the calcium and twice the protein in milk, 4 times the vitamin A in carrots, 3 times the potassium in bananas.
• 100 gms or 1 cup of cooked malunggay leaves contain 3.1 g protein, 0.6 g fiber, 96 mg calcium, 29 mg phosphorus, 1.7 mg iron, 2,820 mg beta-carotene, 0.07 mg thiamin, 0.14a mg riboflavin, 1.1 mg niacin, and 53 mg of vitamin C. (Dr. Lydia Marero of the Food and Drug Research Institute -FNRI)


Folkloric

- Decoction of leaves used for hiccups, asthma, gout, back pain, rheumatism, wounds and sores.
- Young leaves, usually boiled, used to increase the flow of breast milk. 
- Pods for intestinal parasitism.
- Leaves and fruit used for constipation.
- Decoction of boiled roots used to wash sores and ulcers.
- Decoction of the bark used for excitement, restlessness.
- In India pounded roots used as poultice for inflammatory swelling. Flowers used for catarrh, with young leaves or young pods.
- In Nicaragua decoction of roots used for dropsy.
- Roots have been used as abortifacient. In India, bark is used as abortifacient.
- Decoction of root-bark used as fomentation to relieve spasms; also, for calculous affections.
- Gum, mixed with sesamum oil, used for relief of earaches. Same, also reported as abortifacient.
- In Java, gum used for intestinal complaints.
- Roots chewed and applied to snake bites.
- Decoction of roots is considered antiscorbutic; also used in delirious patients.

- Juice of roots is used for otalgia.
- Bark used as rubefacient remedy.
- Decoction of roots is use as gargle for hoarseness and sore throat.
- Leaves used as purgative.
- Chewing of leaves used in gonorrhea to increase urine flow.
- Fresh roots used as stimulant and diuretic.
- Seeds for hypertension, gout, asthma, hiccups, and as a diuretic.
- Rheumatic complaints: Decoction of seeds; or, powdered roasted seeds applied to affected area.
- Juice of the root with milk used for asthma, hiccups, gout, lumbago.
- Poultice of leaves applied for glandular swelling.
- Pounded fresh leaves mixed with coconut oil applied to wounds and cuts.
- The flowers boiled with soy milk thought to have aphrodisiac quality.
- Root is rubefacient and plaster applied externally as counterirritant.
- In West Bengal, India, roots taken by women, esp prostitutes, for permanent contraception (Studies have shown total inactivation or suppression of the reproductive system)
.

Others

Dye: In Jamaica the wood is used for dyeing blue color.
Oil: known as ben oil, extracted from flowers can be used as illuminant, ointment base, and absorbent in the enfleurage process of extracting volatile oils from flowers. |With ointments, the oil allows longer shelf life without undergoing oxidation.The oil, applied locally, has also been helpful for arthritic pains, rheumatic and gouty joints.

Breastfeeding women 

• Malunggay leaves and pods are helpful in increasing breast milk in the breastfeeding months. One tablespoon of leaf powder provide 14% of the protein, 40% of the calcium, 23% of the iron and most of the vitamin A needs of a child aged one to three. Six tablespoons of leaf powder will provide nearly all of the woman's daily iron and calcium needs during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

Studies

Drumsticks or Moringa preparations have been cited often in scientific literature as antibiotic, antiinflammatory, hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic. However, many of the reports are not placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials. 

Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-tumor: Anti-inflammtory and Antitumor Activities of Seeds Extracts of MalunggayA study showed the crude ethanol extract of dried seeds inhibited the carrageenan-induced inflammation in the hind paw of mice by 85% at a dosage of 3 mg/g body weight;  the mature green seeds by 77%. The crude ethanol extract also inhibited the formation of Epstein-Barr virus-early antigen (EBV-EA) induced by 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). At a dosage of 100 ?g/ml, the extract inhibited EBV-EA formation by 100% suggesting its antitumor-promoting activity. 

Ovarian Cancer: Possible Role of Moringa oleifera Lam. Root in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A hormonal etiology of epithelial ovarian cancer has been long suspected. Study suggests M Oleifera can interfere with hormone receptor-related and neoplastic growth-related cytokine pathways through centrally acting mechanisms.

Asthma: Antiasthmatic activity of Moringa oleifera LamA clinical study: Study showed improvement in forced vital capacity, FEV1, and peak expiratory flow rate. It suggests a usefulness for MO seed kernel in patients with asthma.

Antibiotic: 
50 years ago, a study yielded Pterygospermin, a compound that readily dissociates into two molecules of benzyl isothiocyanate which has been shown to have antimicrobial properties. Unfortunately, many of the reports of antibiotic efficacy in humans were not from placebo controlled, randomized clinical trials. Recent studies have demonstrated possible efficacy against H. pylori.

Hormonal properties / Abortifacient: Biochemical observations and histologic findings have been correlated with the anti-implantation action of aequous extracts, one possible explanation for its use as an abortifacient. 

Antiurolithiatic: Study showed lowering of stone forming constituents in the kidneys of calculogenic rats with the use of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of MO suggesting antiurolithiatic activity.

Antimicrobial / Water Purifyiing: Study of MO seeds paste for water purification yielded a steroidal glycoside, strophantidin, a bioactive agent in the seed. The seed paste was found effective in clarification and sedimentation of inorganic and organic matter in raw water, reducing total microbial and coliform counts by 55% and 65% respectively, in 24 hours, compared to alum with 65% and 83% reduction.

Antipyretic / Wound Healing: Study of the ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of MO showed significant antipyretic activity in rats; the ethyl acetate extract of dried leaves showed significant wound healing on rat wound models.

Analgeic: Previous studies have shown analgesic activity from the leaves of MO. This study on the alcoholic extract of MO seeds showed potent analgesic activity comparable to that of aspirin dose of 25 mg/kg BW.

Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant: Study concluded that the alcoholic extracts of MO produced significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity, the aqueous extracts of the fruit less than the alcoholic extract
.
Anti-Ulcer: Study of M oleifera extract showed ulcer by protection by modulating 5-HT secretion through EC dell via 5-HT3 receptors in the gastrointestinal tract.

Anthelmintic: In a comparative study of the anthelmintic activity of M oleifera and V negundo against Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma, dose-dependent activity was observed with M oleifera showing more activity than V negundo.

Comparison with Atenolol: Study comparing the effects of M oleifera with atenolol in adrenaline-induced rats on serum cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose level, heart and body weight showed the M oleifera leave extract made significant changes in each cardiovascular parameter.

Hepatoprotective: Study in acetaminophen-induced liver disease in mice showed that leaves of MO can prevent hepatic injuries by preventing the decline of glutathione level.

Antioxidant / Hypolipidemic / Anti-Atherosclerotic: Study showed lowering of cholesterol levels and reduction of the atherosclerotic plaque formation. Results indicate MO possesses antioxidant, hypolipidemic and antiatherosclerotic activities and has therapeutic potential for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

Chemomodulatory / Chemopreventive: Study showed the possible chemopreventive potential of Moringal oleifera against chemical carcinogenesis.

Anti-Diabetic: Study of the aqueous extract of MO leaves in STZ-induced sub, mild, and severely diabetic rats produced lowering of blood glucose levels, significant reduction in urine sugar and urine protein levels. Study validates scientifically claims on MO as ethnomedicine in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

In the news 

• In Leyte, extracted malunggay juice is mixed with lemonsito juice to make ice candies or cold drinks, making it more plalatble and agreeable to children who detest vegetables.
Because of its high vitamin A, C, and E content, all potent antioxidants, malunggay is a very effective in removing unstable free radicals that is damaging to molecules and pro-aging.

For the men: The fruit could increase the sperm count !

For increasing breast milk: One rounded tablespoon of leaf powder provides 14% of protein requirements, 40% of calcium, 23% of iron, and the daily vitamin A needs of a child aged one to three. Six rounded tablespoons of leaf powder will provide the woman's daily iron and calcium needs during pregnancy and breast-feeding.

Recent uses and preparation 

Constipation: Eat  one or two cups of the cooked leaves at supper time, with plenty of water.
Wound wash: Apply crushed leaves directly to the wound, maintaining cleanliness duriing the process.
Biofuel source 

Drumsticks or Moringa oil extracted from the seed of the drumsticks or  malunggay plant is now being tapped as source of biodiesel. It is gaining preferable status over Jatropha as a source of biofuel. All parts of the malunggay plant are used whereas Jatropha is left with poisonous waste after oil extraction. Also, malunggay needs only one to two years for seedling maturation compared to Jatropha's three to five years. The math of malunggay's commercial potential is attractive.

Toxicities

Root bark contains 2 alkaloids, as well as the toxic hypotensive moringinine.

Has dose-dependent negative inotropic effect, in isolated frog heart study.
Niazinin A, niazimicin and niaziminin A and B isolated from the ethanol extract produced hypotensive, bradycardic and negative inotropic effects in experimental animals.
The bark may cause violent uterine contractions that can be fatal. Chronic high-dose use may cause liver and kidney dysfunctions.
In frequent or large doses, Interior flesh of the plant can cause toxic nerve paralysis from the alkaloid spirochin. 


Names
Other names for Moringa in English include:
   -"Drumstick tree", from the appearance of the long, slender, triangular seed pods.
   - "Horseradish tree", from the taste of the roots, which can serve as a rough substitute for horseradish.
   -"Ben oil tree", from the oil derived from the seeds
The Chinese name of the Moringa , pronounced "la mu" in Mandarin and "lat mok" in Cantonese, means "spicy (hot) wood", and is reminiscent of the English name "horseradish tree".
In some Indian-origin languages, the name is phonetically somewhat similar to Moringa, while in others it is quite different.
  -The MMPND entry for Moringa gives names in many other languages.
  -In Assamese, it is called Sojina.
  -In Punjabi, it is called Surajana.
  -In Tamil, the tree is called Murungai Maram  and the fruit is called Murungai-kaai .
  -In Hindi, it is called sahjan .
  -In Urdu, it is called Sohanjna.
  -In Marathi, it is called Shevaga .
  -In Rajasthani, it is called Shenano.
  -In Malayalam, it is known as Muringa, and the fruit is called Muringakaya or Muringakka.
  -In Dhivehi (Maldivian) , it is called Muranga.
  -In Kannada, it is known as Nuggekayee .
  -In Tulu, it is known as Noorggaee.
  -In Telugu, it is known as Munagachettu , and the fruit is called Munagakaya .
  -In Konkani, it is called Muska Saang or Mashinga Saang.
  -In Gujarati, it is called Saragvo.
  -In Oriya, it is called Sajana or Sujuna.
  -In Bengali, it is called Shojne danta .
  -In Nepali, it is known as Sajiwan or Swejan.
  -In Guyana, it is called Sijan.
  -In Hausa language, it is called Zogale
  -In Sinhalese, it is called Murunga.
  -In Sindhi language, it is called Sohenjara. The fruit may also be called Singi or Singyu
  -In Thai, it is called ma rum .
  -The Tagalog name in the Philippines - Malunggay - is also phonetically similar to "Moringa". In Ilocano, another Filipino language, it is called Marungay. It is called Kamunggay in Visayan. Malunggein Pampango or Kapampangan. In the Bikol language, it is referred to as Kalunggay.
  -In Vietnamese, it is called "chùm ngây".
  -In Haiti, the Moringa is called the benzolive (or benzolivier).
  -In Nicaragua, the plant is referred to as Marango.
  -In Indonesian, the Moringa is called kelor (kalor in Malay).
  -In Javanese, it is called limaran.
  -In Mooré (Burkina Faso), it is called "Arzan Tiiga," which means "tree of paradise".
  -In Zarma (Niger), it is called Windi Bundu which means, loosely, "fencepost wood", a reference to its use as live fencing. The leaves are the primary part eaten, and in fact are so common that the Zarma word "kopto", or "leaf", is synonymous with cooked Moringa leaves.
  -In Dioula (Côte d'Ivoire), it is called "Arjanayiiri".
  -In Mauritius, the leaves are called "Brède Mouroum", while the drumstick part is known as "Bâton Mouroum".
  -In Konkani (Goa) it is called Saang or Maska Saang or Mashinga Saang.
  -In Ilokano it is called marunggay or marunggi.
  -In Myanmar (Burma) it is called "Dandalun".
  -In Chichewa language of Malawi they call it " Cham'mwamba"
  -In Madagascar it is called "ananambo"
The fruit meat of drum sticks, including young seeds, is good for soup. Young leaves can either be fried with shrimp or added as a topping in fish soup. Dandalun leaves soup is said to increase urination and thus benefit the kidneys. It is widely used in Myanmar traditional medicine.

Sunday, September 18, 2011

Orange cultivation


An orange—specifically, the sweet orange—is the citrus Citrus × ​sinensis (Citrus Sinensis (L.) Osbeck) and its fruit. It is the most commonly grown tree fruit in the world.

The orange is a hybrid of ancient cultivated origin, possibly between pomelo (Citrus maxima) and mandarin (Citrus reticulata). It is an evergreen flowering tree generally growing to 9–10 m in height (although very old specimens have reached 15 m). The leaves are arranged alternately, are ovate in shape with crenulate margins and are 4–10 cm long. The orange fruit is a hesperidium, a type of berry.

Orange trees are widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates for the delicious sweet fruit, which is peeled or cut (to avoid the bitter rind) and eaten whole, or processed to extract orange juice, and also for the fragrant peel.In 2008, 68.5 million tons of oranges were grown worldwide, primarily in Brazil and the state of Florida in the US.

Oranges probably originated in Southeast Asia and were cultivated in China by 2500 BC. The fruit of Citrus sinensis is called sweet orange to distinguish it from Citrus aurantium, the bitter orange. The name is thought to derive ultimately from the Sanskrit for the orange tree, with its final form developing after passing through numerous intermediate languages.

In a number of languages, it is known as a "Chinese apple" (e.g. Dutch Sinaasappel, "China's apple", or northern German Apfelsine). (In English, however, "Chinese apple" generally refers to the pomegranate).

Varieties 

       -Common oranges
       - Valencia
       - Hart's Tardiff Valencia
       -Hamlin
       -Other varieties of common oranges
       -Navel oranges
       -Cara cara navels
       -Other varieties of navels
       -Blood oranges
       -Other varieties of blood oranges
       -Acidless oranges

All citrus trees are of the single genus, Citrus, and remain almost entirely interfertile; that is, there is only one "superspecies" which includes grapefruits, lemons, limes, oranges, and numerous other types and hybrids.
orange flower

Nevertheless, names have been given to the various members of the genus. The name "orange" applies primarily to the sweet orange, Citrus sinensis, which accounts for about 70% of world citrus production.

Other citrus species known as oranges include:

The bitter orange, Citrus aurantium, also known as Seville orange, sour orange (especially when used as rootstock for a sweet orange tree), bigarade orange, and marmalade orange.
The bergamot orange, Citrus bergamia Risso, which is grown primarily in Italy and used primarily for the peel, which flavours Earl Grey tea.
citrumon oranges


The mandarin orange Citrus reticulata, which itself has an enormous number of cultivars (most notably the satsuma (C. unshiu), tangerine (Citrus × tangerina) and clementine (C. clementina). In some cultivars the mandarin resembles the sweet orange and is difficult to distinguish from it, but it is generally smaller and/or oblate rather than round in shape, easier to peel, and less acid.
citrumelow oranges

The trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) is sometimes included in the genus and classified as an orange (Citrus trifoliata). It is often used as rootstock for sweet orange trees, especially as a hybrid with other Citrus cultivars. The trifoliate orange is a thorny shrub or small tree grown primarily for its foliage and flowers, or as a barrier hedge; however, it bears a downy fruit resembling a small citrus fruit, from which marmalade is sometimes made. It is native to northern China and Korea, and is also known as "hardy orange" (because it can withstand sub-freezing temperatures) or "Chinese bitter orange".

The fruit of a member of the genus Citrus is considered a hesperidium, a kind of modified berry, because it has numerous seeds, is fleshy and soft, derives from a single ovary, and is covered by a rind created by a leathery thickening of the ovary wall. An orange seed is called a "pip". The white thread-like material attached to the inside of the peel is called pith.
matobuntan pomelo oranges

Orange trees are generally grafted; the bottom part of the tree, including the roots and trunk, is called the rootstock, while the fruit-producing top part of the tree is called budwood (when talking about the process of grafting) or scion (when talking about the variety of orange).
orange seeds

Citrus Sinensis (L.) Osbeck is broken down into four groups with distinct characteristics: Common oranges, blood oranges, navels, and acidless oranges.

Varieties
Common oranges

Common oranges (also called "white", "round" or "blond" oranges) make up about two-thirds of all oranges grown and include all oranges not described in one of the other three groups. They are used primarily for juice production.

Valencia

The Valencia or Murcia orange is one of the sweet oranges used for juice extraction. It is a late-season

fruit, and therefore a popular variety when the navel oranges are out of season.

Hart's Tardiff Valencia

Thomas Rivers, an English nurseryman, imported this variety from the Azores Islands and catalogued it in 1865 under the name Excelsior. About 1870, he provided trees to S. B. Parsons, a Long Island nurseryman, who sold trees to E. H. Hart of Federal Point, Florida.

Hamlin

The Hamlin orange was once the most important juice orange in Florida, replacing the inferior Parson Brown variety as the principal early-season juice orange. Today it is the predominant early-season orange grown in Florida and Brazil. It thrives in humid subtropical climates and is for that reason found primarily in Florida and Brazil; cooler, more arid climates (such as California) produce edible fruit, but the size is too small for commercial use.

The cultivar was discovered in 1879 near Glenwood, Florida, in a grove later owned by A.G. Hamlin. It is small, smooth, not highly coloured, seedless and juicy, but the juice is pale. The fruit is of poor to medium quality but the tree is high-yielding and cold-tolerant. The fruit is harvested from October to December and this cultivar is now the leading early orange in Florida and possibly the world's principal variety of very early maturing common sweet orange.

On pineland and hammock soil it is budded on sour orange which gives a high solids content. On sand, it does best on rough lemon rootstock.

Other varieties of common oranges
-Balta (Pakistan)
-Belladonna (Italy)
-Berna - Grown mainly in Spain
-Biondo Commune ("common blond") is widely grown in the Mediterranean basin, especially in North
                        Africa  and Egypt; Greece, where it is called the Koines; Italy, where it is also known
                        as the Liscio; and Spain. It is also called the Beledi and Nostrale. In Italy, this variety
                        ripens in December, earlier than the competing Taroco .


-Biondo Riccio (Italy)
-Cadanera is a seedless orange of excellent flavour grown Algeria, Morocco and Spain, where it is
                       quite   popular. It is known by a wide variety of trade names, including Cadena Fina,
                       Cadena sin Jueso, Precoce de Valence (early Valencia), Precoce des Canaries, and
                       Valence san Pepins (seedless  Valencia). It was first grown in Spain in 1870. It begins
                       to ripen in November.

-Calabrese or Calabrese Ovale (Italy)
-Carvalhal (Portugal)
-Castellana (Spain
-Clanor (S. Africa)
-Don Jao (Portugal)
-Fukuhara (Japan)
-Gardner (Florida) This midseason orange ripens around February 1, about the same time as Midsweet.
-Gardner is about as cold hardy as Sunstar and Midsweet.
-Hamlin (worldwide)
-Homosassa (Florida)
-Jaffa
-Jincheng - the most popular orange in China.
-Joppa (S. Africa, Texas)
-Khettmali (Israel, Lebanon)

Kona is a type of Valencia orange introduced to Hawaii in 1792 by Captain George Vancouver, whose ship's surgeon and naturalist, Archibald Menzies, raised the seedlings on board and gave them to several Hawaiian chefs. In Kailua-Kona, some of this original stock still bears fruit. For several decades in the 19th century, these oranges were the leading export from the Kona district on the Big Island of Hawaii.

-Lue Gim Gong (Florida) An early scion developed by Lue Gim Gong, a Chinese immigrant known as the "Citrus Genius". In 1888, Lue cross-pollinated the "Harts late" Valencia and "Mediterranean Sweet" orange varieties, which produced a fruit both sweet and frost-tolerant. Originally considered a hybrid, the "Lue Gim Gong" orange was later found to be a nucellar seedling of the "Valencia" variety, which is properly called the "'Lue Gim Gong". Distributed by Glen St. Mary Nurseries, the variety was awarded the Silver Wilder Medal by the American Pomological Society in 1911, the first such award for a citrus fruit. The "Lue Gim Gong" variety is still grown in Florida, but is sold under the general name "Valencia".

Macetera (Spain) Known for its unique flavour.
Maltaise Blonde (North Africa)
Maltaise Ovale (South Africa), grown in California as Garey's or California Mediterranean Sweet.
Marrs (California, Iran, Texas) relatively low in acid
Midsweet (Florida) Midsweet is a newer scion similar to the Hamlin and Pineapple. It ripens later than Pineapple and is cold-hardier. Fruit yield and quality are similar to the Hamlin although the juice is deeper-coloured.

Moro Tarocco is popular in Italy and is ovoid in shape, resembling a tangelo, with a distinctive caramel-coloured endocarp. The original mutation occurred in the 17th century in Sicily, creating the striking caramel-toned endocarp. This colour is the result of the pigment called anthocarpium, not usually found in citrus, but is common in other red fruits and flowers.

Mosambi (India, Pakistan) So low in acid and insipid-tasting that it might be classified as acidless.
Parson Brown (Florida, Mexico, Turkey) 'Parson Brown', once a widely-grown Florida juice orange, has declined in popularity as new varieties with more juice, better yield, and higher acid and/or sugar content have been developed. It originated as a chance seedling at the home of Reverend N. L. Brown near

Webster, Florida, in 1865. Its fruit are round, medium large, has a thick, pebbly peel and contains 10-30 seeds. It is still grown because it is the earliest maturing fruit in the United States; it usually matures in early September in the Valley district of Texas, and from early October to January in Florida. Both peel and juice colour are poor, as is juice quality.

Pera (Brazil) - popular in the Brazilian citrus-producing industry, yielding 7.5 million tons in 2005.
Pera Coroa (Brazil)
Pera Natal (Brazil)
Pera Rio (Brazil)
Pineapple (North and South America, India)
Premier (S. Africa)
Rhode Red is a mutation of the Valencia orange, but has a more highly coloured flesh, more juice, and less acidity than the Valencia. It also has less Vitamin C. It was discovered in 1955 in a grove near Sebring, Florida, by Paul Rhode.
Roble was first shipped from Madrid, Spain, in 1851 by Joseph Roble to his homestead in what is now Roble's Park in Tampa, Florida. It is known for high sugar content.
Queen (S. Africa)
Salustiana (North Africa)
Sathgudi (South India)
Seleta, Selecta (Australia, Brazil) High in acid
Shamouti (Africa, Asia, Greece) Sweet
Shamouti Jaffa (Israel) is a mutation of an earlier and inferior Palestinian variety, dating from around 1850. The tree is considered ornamental due to dense foliage, large leaves, and absence of thorns. It is harvested in Israel from December through May.
Shamouti Masry (Egypt) A richer variety than Shamouti
Sunstar (Florida) A newer cultivar, the Sunstar ripens mid-season (December–March. The juice colour is darker than the competing Hamlin and it is more resistant to cold and fruit-drop than the competing mid-season Pineapple variety.
Tomango (S. Africa)
Verna (Algeria, Mexico, Morocco, Spain)
Vicieda (Algeria, Morocco, Spain)
Westin (Brazil)

Navel oranges

Navel oranges are characterized by the growth of a second fruit at the apex, which protrudes slightly and resembles a human navel. They are primarily used for eating, as the skin is thicker and easier to peel than a common orange, they are less juicy, and a bitterness from limonin during processing renders them less satisfactory for juice. They are very popular because of their use as an eating orange, their widespread distribution, and their long growing season; in the United States, they are available from November through April, with peak supplies in January, February and March.
navel orange

A peeled sectioned navel orange. The underdeveloped twin is located on the bottom right.
navel oranges

According to Dorsett, Shamel, and Popenoe (1917) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture who conducted a study at first hand, a single mutation in 1810 to 1820 in a Selecta orange tree planted at a monastery near Bahia in Brazil, probably yielded the navel orange, also known as the Washington, Riverside, or Bahia navel. However, a researcher at the University of California, Riverside, believes that the parent variety was more likely the Portuguese navel (Umbigo) orange described by Risso and Poiteau (1818–22). The mutation causes the orange to develop a second orange at the base of the original fruit, opposite the stem, as a conjoined twin in a set of smaller segments embedded within the peel of the larger orange. From the outside, it looks similar to the human navel, hence its name.

Because the mutation left the fruit seedless, and therefore sterile, the only means available to cultivate more of this new variety is to graft cuttings onto other varieties of citrus tree. It was introduced into Australia in 1824 and Florida in 1835. Twelve such cuttings of the original tree were transplanted to Riverside, California in 1870, which eventually led to worldwide popularity. The California Citrus State Historic Park preserves this history in Riverside, California, as does the Orcutt Ranch Horticulture Center in Los Angeles County, California.

Today, navel oranges continue to be produced through cutting and grafting. This does not allow for the usual selective breeding methodologies, and so not only do the navel oranges of today have exactly the same genetic makeup as the original tree, and are therefore clones, all navel oranges can be considered to be the fruit of that single nearly two-hundred-year-old tree. The case is similar to that of the common yellow seedless banana, the Cavendish. On rare occasions, however, further mutations can lead to new varieties.
Cara cara navels
 

Cara cara oranges (also called "red navel") are a type of navel orange grown primarily in Venezuela, South Africa, and California's San Joaquin Valley. The bright orange exterior of cara cara oranges is similar to other navels, but their interior is a distinctive pinkish red. They are sweet and comparatively low in acid.
cara cara tangelo oranges

It is believed to have developed as a cross between the Washington navel and the Brazilian Bahia navel. It was discovered at the Hacienda de Cara Cara in Valencia, Venezuela in 1976.
cara cara tangelo oranges  - semi wdarf

From the major growing regions, South African cara caras are ready for market starting in August, Venezuelan fruits arrive in October and Californian fruits make their seasonal debut in late November.

Other varieties of navels

Dream Navel
Bahianinha or Bahia
Late Navel
Washington or California Navel

Blood oranges

Blood oranges, which are very widely grown in Spain and Italy (as "sangüina" or "sanguigna", respectively) are characterized by dark red pigmentation. They are considered, in general, the most delicious juice orange.
blood orange

Comparison between the inside and the outside of both the regular and blood orange.

Blood oranges are a natural variety of C. sinensis derived from abnormal pigmentation of the fruit that gives its pulp a streaked red colour. The juice produced from such oranges is often dark burgundy, hence reminiscent of blood. Original blood oranges were first discovered and cultivated in the 15th century in Sicily; since then, however, their cultivation spread worldwide, and most blood oranges today are hybrids.

The fruit has found a niche as an interesting ingredient variation on traditional Seville marmalade, with its striking red streaks and distinct flavour. The scarlet navel is a variety with the same dual-fruit mutation as the navel orange.

Other varieties of blood oranges

Tarocco is a relatively new variety developed in Italy. It begins to ripen in late January.
Sanguinelli is cultivated in Sicily and is actually a mutant of the Doble Fina. It was discovered in 1929 at Almenara, in the Castellón province of Spain.
Moro (Italy) Originally from Sicily, it is common throughout Italy. The medium-sized fruit has a relatively long
            harvest, lasting from December through to April.

Maltese is small and highly-coloured. It is often used in sorbets and other desserts due to the rich burgundy colour. It is generally thought to have originated in Italy as a mutation (although the Maltese claim origin) and has been cultivated there for centuries. It is also extensively grown in southern Spain and Malta.

Acidless oranges are an early-season fruit with very low levels of acid. They are also called "sweet" oranges in the US, with similar names in other countries: douce in France, sucrena in Spain, dolce (or maltese) in Italy, meski in North Africa and the Near East (where their peculiar rather bland taste is especially popular), lokkum in Turkey, succari in Egypt, and lima in Brazil.
orange tree with ripen oranges

The lack of acid, which protects orange juice against spoilage in other groups, renders them generally unfit for processing, due to spoilage, so that they are primarily eaten rather than juiced. They remain profitable in areas of local consumption, but rapid spoilage renders them unsuitable for export to major population centers of Europe, Asia, or the United States.

History of cultivation

The sweet orange does not occur in the wild. It is believed to have been first cultivated in southern China, northeastern India, or perhaps southeastern Asia (formerly Indochina).

The Persian orange, grown widely in southern Europe after its introduction to Italy in the 11th century, was bitter. It was used primarily for medicinal purposes.

Italian traders might have introduced it to the Mediterranean area after 1450. Portuguese navigators have also been credited with bringing orange trees to the Mediterranean region around 1500.After introduction of the sweet orange, it was quickly adopted as an edible fruit; it was so highly regarded that wealthy persons grew oranges in private conservatories, called orangeries. Certainly by 1646 it was well-known in Europe.

In some South East Indo-European languages the orange was named after Portugal, which was formerly the main source of imports of sweet oranges. Examples are Bulgarian portokal портокал, Greek portokali πορτοκάλι, Persian portaghal پرتقال, Albanian "portokall", Macedonian portokal портокал, and Romanian portocală. In Italian the word portogallo to refer to the orange fruit is dialectal. It means literally "Portugal". Similar words are in common use in most Italian dialects across the whole country. Related names can also be found in other languages: Turkish Portakal, Arabic al-burtuqal البرتقال, Amharic birtukan, and Georgian phortokhali.

Portuguese, Spanish, Arab, and Dutch sailors planted citrus trees along trade routes to prevent scurvy. On his second voyage in 1493, Christopher Columbus took the seeds of oranges, lemons and citrons to Haiti and the Caribbean. They were introduced in Florida (along with lemons) in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, to California by the Franciscans in the 18th century, and were introduced to Hawaii in 1792.

Spaniards undoubtedly introduced the sweet orange into South America and Mexico in the mid-1500s, and probably the French took it to Louisiana. It was from New Orleans that seeds were obtained and distributed in Florida about 1872 and many orange groves were established by grafting the sweet orange onto sour orange rootstocks. Arizona received the orange tree with the founding of missions between 1707 and 1710. The orange was brought to San Diego, California, by those who built the first mission there in 1769. An orchard was planted at the San Gabriel Mission around 1804. A commercial orchard was established in 1841 on a site that is now a part of Los Angeles. In 1781, a surgeon and naturalist on the ship Discovery collected orange seeds in South Africa, grew seedlings on board and presented them to tribal chiefs in the Hawaiian Islands on arrival in 1792. In time, the orange became commonly grown throughout Hawaii, but was virtually abandoned after the arrival of the Mediterranean fruit fly, and the fruit is now imported from the United States mainland.

Nutritional valueOrange, raw, FloridaNutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 192 kJ (46 kcal)
Carbohydrates 11.54 g
- Sugars 9.14 g
- Dietary fiber 2.4 g
Fat 0.21 g
Protein 0.70 g
Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.100 mg (9%)
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.040 mg (3%)
Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.400 mg (3%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.250 mg (5%)
Vitamin B6 0.051 mg (4%)
Folate (Vit. B9) 17 μg (4%)
Vitamin C 45 mg (54%)
Calcium 43 mg (4%)
Iron 0.09 mg (1%)
Magnesium 10 mg (3%)
Phosphorus 12 mg (2%)
Potassium 169 mg (4%)
Zinc 0.08 mg (1%)

Acidity

Like all citrus fruits, the orange is acidic: pH levels have been reported by reliable sources as low as 2.9 and as high as 4.0

Grading

Florida

Whole oranges: The USDA has established the following grades for Florida oranges, which primarily affects oranges sold as fruit: U.S. Fancy, U.S. No. 1 Bright, U.S. No. 1, U.S. No. 1 Golden, U.S. No. 1 Bronze, U.S. No. 1 Russet, U.S. No. 2 Bright, U.S. No. 2, U.S. No. 2 Russet, and U.S. No. 3. The general characteristics graded are colour (both hue and uniformity), firmness, maturity, varietal characteristics, texture, and shape.

Grade numbers are determined by the amount of unsightly blemishes to the skin and firmness of the fruit (which do not affect consumer safety). The USDA separates blemishes into three categories:
General blemishes, including: ammoniation, buckskin, caked melanose, creasing, decay, scab, split navels, sprayburn, undeveloped segments, unhealed segments and wormy fruit.

Injuries to fruit, including: bruises, green spots, oil spots, rough, wide, or protruding navels, scale, scars, skin breakdown, and thorn scratches.

Damage caused by dirt or other foreign material, disease, dryness or mushy condition, hail, insects, riciness or woodiness, and sunburn.

The terms Bright, Golden, Bronze and Russet apply solely to discolouration. Fancy, the highest grade, requires the highest grade of both colour and blemishes.

Fruit for juice: The USDA uses a separate grading system for oranges used for juice (where appearance and texture is irrelevant). There are only two grades, U.S. Grade AA Juice and U.S. Grade A Juice. (Note that this is a grade given to the oranges prior to processing.) Juice grades are determined by three factors: (1) the juiciness of the orange; (2) the amount of solids in the juice (at least 10% solids being required for the AA grade); and (3) the proportion of anhydric citric acid to fruit solids.
Orange peel

Orange peel contains citral, an aldehyde that antagonizes the action of vitamin A. Therefore, anyone eating quantities of orange peel should make certain that their dietary intake of Vitamin A is sufficient.

Production

Two areas dominate orange growth and especially production of orange juice. The southeast coast of Brazil, surrounding São Paulo, produces more oranges than the next three countries combined. As almost 99% of the fruit from this region is processed for export, it is the overwhelming giant in worldwide orange juice production.

Mid-south Florida produces about half as many oranges as Brazil; however, the bulk of its orange juice is sold domestically. The Indian River area of Florida is known for the high quality of its juice, which is often sold fresh in the US. Because of the low yield and high quality of Indian River oranges, their juice is often blended with juice from other regions.

Production of orange juice between these two makes up roughly 85% of the world market. Brazil exports 99% of its production, while 90% of Florida's production is consumed in the US.

Orange juice is traded internationally in the form of frozen concentrated orange juice to reduce the volume used, so that storage and transportation costs are lower.

Orange output in 2005Top Orange Producers
(million tons) 2005 2008
Brazil 17.8 18.5
United States 8.4 9.1
India 3.1 4.4
Mexico 4.1 4.3
China 2.4 3.7
Spain 2.3 3.3
Iran 2.0 2.6
Italy 2.2 2.5
Indonesia 2.2 2.3
Egypt 1.8 2.1
Pakistan 1.6 1.7
World Total 61.7 68.5
Source:
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)


Oranges grown for commercial production are grown in groves and are produced throughout the world. Brazil is by far the greatest producing area, followed by Florida, which accounts for 80% of the United States' crop.

Brazil

Brazil is the largest orange-producing nation in the world, and production is located primarily in the state of São Paulo, which accounts for approximately 80% of Brazil's production and 53% of total global FCOJ (frozen concentrated orange juice) production (in the region of Campinas, São Carlos, São José do Rio Preto and Barretos, and the western part of the state of Minas Gerais). In Brazil, the four major orange varieties of orange used for processing orange juice are the Hamlin, Pera Rio, Natal and Valencia.

Cultivation
Propagation

Propagation of orange trees is deceptively difficult, because hardy edible oranges are not generally grown from seed. Cultivars that produce good quality fruit are highly susceptible to root diseases. Grafted trees also begin bearing fruit many years earlier than trees reproduced by seed.

Other benefits of grafting include more accurate reproduction of good fruit traits than plants derived from seed, and the opportunity to alter tree size, productivity, and other traits through rootstock influence, while maintaining identical fruit characteristics.

Almost all orange trees are propagated in two stages. First, rootstock is grown from seed. When the seedling is well-established, the leafy top is cut off, and budwood from an existing tree is grafted onto the rootstock. It is the budwood that determines the variety of orange that is grown.

Sour orange, resistant to phytophthora parasitica (root rot or "foot rot"), was the preferred rootstock in Florida, especially in low hammock and flatwoods soils with high water table, until the discovery of the virus disease tristeza in Florida orange groves in 1952. Some were grown on sweet orange or rough lemon rootstock, but these are poor choices. Sweet orange is highly vulnerable to numerous pests and diseases, especially root rot, and lemon rootstock results in oranges that lack juice and sugar. Lemon rootstock, however, produces rapid growth and early fruiting. Sour rootstock is itself susceptible to a number of diseases, most notably the tristeza virus, which is carried by nematodes.

As citrus-growing stretched southward into high pineland, rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri) rootstock gained favour and was found to induce more rapid and vigorous growth and earlier bearing, counterbalancing its sensitivity to cold and tendency toward foot rot. Rough lemon became the dominant rootstock in Florida until it was found to be extremely susceptible to blight and was abandoned. Sour orange has been reinstated in recent years because tristeza has been more or less dormant since the 1940s and sour orange is now the prevailing stock for 50% of the orange trees in the state.
Principle rootstocks – United States

Today, five types of rootstock predominate in (comparatively) cool climates where there is chance of cold, or especially freezing, weather (notably Florida and Southern Europe):
Sour rootstock ("standard sour orange") is still used and is the only one of the five that is actually an orange; it is highly drought resistant and generally vigorous.

Poncirus trifoliata. Poncirus trifoliata is a close relative of the Citrus genus, and is actually known as the "trifoliate orange" and "Chinese bitter orange"; in fact, it is sometimes classified as Citrus trifoliata. It is grown as an ornamental flowering shrub and is extremely cold tolerant compared to true citrus.

It makes excellent rootstock under certain conditions; it is especially resistant to cold, tristeza virus and phytophthora parasitica (root rot), and grows well in heavy clay/loam soil. It is the slowest growing of the rootstocks, however, and has poor resistance to heat and drought. It is primarily used in China, Japan, and parts of California with heavy soils.

Swingle citrumelo. On April 1, 1974, the U.S. Department of Agriculture released to citrus nurserymen and growers the 'Swingle' citrumelo citrus rootstock. This rootstock selection was hybridized by Walter Tennyson Swingle at Eustis, Florida, in 1907, from Citrus paradisi Macf. 'Duncan' grapefruit X Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. Swingle citrumelo is tolerant of tristeza virus and Phytophthora parasitica (root rot) and moderately tolerant of salt and freezing.

Citrange (Troyer citrange and Carrizo citrange). Citranges are hybrids of the Washington navel orange and Poncirus trifoliata. The original crosses were made in the early 1900s by the United States Department of Agriculture with the intention of producing cold tolerant scion varieties. They were later identified as being suitable for use as rootstocks.

Commercial use of these rootstocks began in Australia in the 1960s. They have become very successful orange rootstock; the Troyer variety is generally found in California, while the Carrizo variety is used in Florida. The benefits are phytophthora (root rot) tolerance, nematode tolerance, tristeza virus tolerance, good cold tolerance, and reasonable vigor. They are also highly polyembryonic, so growers get multiple plants from a single seed. Citrange, however, does not do well in clay, calcareous, or high pH soil, and is sensitive to salinity (all except clay being characteristic of coastal areas). (It also is not usable as rootstock for mandarin scions, as it "overgrows" them, i.e. the rootstock will produce branches of its own in competition with the grafted budwood.)

'Cleopatra' mandarin. Cleopatra mandarin originated in India and was introduced into Florida from Jamaica in the mid 19th century. Cleopatra mandarin has been widely distributed and trialled as a rootstock throughout the world. It is used primarily in Florida, Spain and Australia for shallow alkaline soils, due to its rare ability to tolerate alkalinity and salinity often present in such otherwise ideal environments as south Florida. Dade County, Florida, for example, has 85% calcareous soil, as is typical of land previously under water. In most other respects, it is an inferior rootstock.

Other rootstock varieties – United States
African shaddock X trifoliate hybrid
Benton citrange trifoliate hybrid
Borneo Rangpur lime

Bitters C-22 citrange ('X Citroncirus sp.' Rutaceae) Bitters C-22 is not related to the bitter orange, but was named in honor of William P. Bitters. It was hybridized at the USDA US Date and Citrus Station in Indio, California, and developed further by the University of California, Riverside. It is used primarily as rootstock for navel oranges in California; however, a recent report suggested its usefulness in Texas to replace sour orange due to its tolerance of calcareous soil conditions.

Carpenter C-54 citrange
C-32 citrange trifoliate hybrid
C-35 citrange trifoliate hybrid
Calamondin kumquat hybrid
Carrizo citrange trifoliate hybrid

Citradia trifoliate hybrid
Citremon trifoliate hybrid (CRC 1449)
Citrumelo trifoliate hybrid C190
Citrumelo trifoliate hybrid (CRC 1452)
Citrumelo trifoliate hybrid (CRC 4475)
citrus macrophylla
Citrus macrophylla (Alemow)
Citrus volkameriana Volkamer lemon
Cleopatra mandarin
Cleopatra mandarin X trifoliate hybrid X639
cleopatra mandarin orange tree

Flying dragon trifoliate (CRC 3330A)
Fraser Seville sour orange
Furr C-57 citrange
sour oranges
Goutoucheng sour orange (CRC 3929)
Goutoucheng sour orange (CRC 4004)
Grapefruit seedling (CRC 343)
Pomeroy trifoliate
Rangpur lime X Troyer citrange hybrid
Rich 16-6 trifoliate
trifoliate rich orange

Rubidoux trifoliate
Rusk citrange trifoliate orange
Satsuma X trifoliate hybrid
satsuma oranges 


Schaub rough lemon
Small-leaf trifoliate
Smooth Flat Seville sour orange
Sun Chu Sha Kat mandarin
US 119 (Grapefruit X trifoliate) X Sweet Orange hybrid
Vangassay rough lemon
rough lemon

Yuma Ponderosa lemon pummelo hybrid
Zhuluan sour orange hybrid (CRC 3930)
Zhuluan sour orange hybrid (CRC 3981)

Climate

 Oranges can be grown outdoors in warmer climates, and indoors in cooler climates. Like most citrus plants, oranges will not do well unless kept between 15.5 °C - 29 °C (60 °F - 85 °F). Orange trees grown from the seeds of a store-bought fruit may not produce fruit, and any fruit that is produced may be different than

the parent fruit, due to modern techniques of hybridization. To grow the seed of a store-bought orange, one must not let the seed dry out (an approach used for many citrus plants). One method is to put the seeds between the halves of a damp paper towel until they germinate, and then plant them. Many just plant them straight into the soil, making sure to water them regularly. Oranges require a huge amount of water and the citrus industry in the Middle East is a contributing factor to the desiccation of the region.

Oranges are sensitive to frost, and a common treatment to prevent frost damage when sub-freezing temperatures are expected is to spray the trees with water, since as long as unfrozen water is turning to ice on the trees' branches, the ice that has formed stays just at the freezing point, giving protection even if air temperatures have dropped far lower.

Another strategy to prevent freezing of orange crops and trees is burning fuel oil in smudge pots (also known as a choofa or orchard heater). These burn with a great deal of particulate emission. Condensation of water vapor on particulate soot prevents condensation on plants and raises air temperature very slightly. Smudge pots were first developed after a disastrous freeze in Southern California in January 1913 wiped out a whole crop.
Harvesting

Canopy-shaking mechanical harvesters are increasingly being used in Florida to harvest process oranges.

Current canopy shaker machines use a series of six- to seven-foot long tines to shake the tree canopy at a relatively constant shaking stroke and frequency.

Diseases and pests
Cottony cushion scale

The first major pest attacking orange trees in the United States was the cottony cushion scale (Icerya purchasi), which was imported from Australia to California in 1868. Within 20 years, it had wiped out the citrus industry around Los Angeles and seriously limited orange growth throughout California.

In 1888, the USDA sent Alfred Koebele to Australia to study the scale in its native habitat. He brought back with him specimens of an Australian ladybird beetle, Novius cardinalis, and within a decade the scale had been controlled or eradicated throughout the state.

Citrus greening disease

As of 2010, the most serious threat to orange production is Citrus Greening Disease (Liberobacter asiaticum), an insect-vectored bacterium. Although common in parts of Asia, it was first reported in the Western Hemisphere in 2004 in Brazil, by Fundecitrus Brasil. (The insects that carry it were discovered in Florida in 1998.) Since then, it has attacked nearly 100% of the trees in Florida.As of 2009, 87% of the trees in Brazil's primary orange growing areas (São Paulo and Minas Gerais) showed symptoms of greening, an increase of 50% over 2008.

The disease is characterized by blotchy mottle on the leaves, and misshapen, poorly coloured, off-tasting fruit. In areas where the disease is endemic, citrus trees may live for only 5–8 years and never bear usable fruit.

The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an invasive insect pest of citrus in Brazil and Florida. It is an efficient vector of the bacterium, Liberobacter asiaticum, causal organism of citrus greening disease or "Huanglongbing" (HLB). The pest was first detected in Florida in 1998 and now occurs on all citrus throughout the state. HLB was first detected in Florida 2005 and is spreading rapidly. Generalist predators such as the ladybeetles, Curinus coeruleus, Olla v-nigrum, Harmonia axyridis, and Cycloneda sanguinea, and lacewings such as Ceraeochrysa spp. and Chrysoperla spp. make significant contribution to the mortality of ACP, resulting in 80-100% reduction in psyllid populations.

In contrast, parasitism by Tamarixia radiata, a species-specific parasitoid of ACP, is variable and generally low in southwest Florida, averaging less than 12% during May through September and 50% in November 2006.

Foliar applications of insecticides reduced psyllid populations for a short time at best, but also suppressed the populations of predatory ladybeetles. Soil application of aldicarb provided limited control of ACP while drenches of imidacloprid to young trees were effective for two months or more.

Management of citrus greening disease is difficult and requires an integrated approach including use of clean stock, elimination of inoculum via voluntary and regulatory means, use of pesticides to control psyllid vectors in the citrus crop, and biological control of psyllid vectors in non-crop reservoirs. Nowhere in the world where citrus greening disease occurs is it under completely successful management.

Greasy spot

Greasy spot, caused by Mycosphaerella citri, produces leaf spots and defoliation of orange trees reducing tree vigor and yield. The fungus produces air-borne ascospores from pseudothecia in decomposing leaf litter on the grove floor.
Storage and processing

After harvesting, oranges have a shelf life of about one week at room temperature and one month refrigerated. In either case, they are optimally stored loosely in an open or perforated plastic bag. Oranges produce odours that are absorbed by meat, eggs and dairy products.

Degreening

Oranges cannot be artificially ripened and must be mature when harvested. (In Texas, Arizona, California, and Florida, laws forbid harvesting immature fruit for human consumption.) Ripe oranges, however, often have some green or yellow-green colour in the skin. Ethylene gas is used to turn green skin orange. The process is called "degreening", or sometimes, "gassing", "sweating" or "curing". Its purpose is to remove the green colour from otherwise mature fruit.

Degreening is used primarily in the early fall when night temperatures have not been low enough for the peel to develop its characteristic mature colour. Late oranges such as Valencia sometimes regreen during the spring growth flush and may also be degreened.

Recommended degreening conditions include 82 to 85 °F temperature, 92 to 95% relative humidity and 1 to 5 ppm ethylene. Air circulation within the degreening room should produce about one change per minute. In addition, outside air ventilation should be adequate to maintain carbon dioxide level below one percent, which normally requires about one complete change of air per hour.

Degreening time varies with the amount of green colour, size of fruit and some cultural practices, e.g., excessive nitrogen fertilization promoting vigorous growth and oil-emulsion sprays after mid-July. Maximum degreening times in the US are 48 to 60 hours for oranges, but the degreening period should be as short as possible.

Etymology

The word orange is derived from Sanskrit  nāraṅgaḥ "orange tree." The Sanskrit word is in turn borrowed from the Dravidian root for 'fragrant'. In Tamil, a bitter orange is known as  'Narandam', a sweet orange is called 'nagarugam' and  'naari' means fragrance. In Telugu the orange is called  'naringa'. The Sanskrit word was borrowed into European languages through Persian  nārang, Armenian նարինջ nārinj, Arabic  nāranj, (Spanish-language naranja and Portuguese laranja), Late Latin arangia, Italian arancia or arancio, and Old French orenge, in chronological order. The first appearance in English dates from the 14th century. The forms starting with n- are older, and this initial n- may have been mistaken as part of the indefinite article, in languages with articles ending with an -n sound (e.g., in French une norenge may have been taken as une orenge), a process called juncture loss. The name of the colour is derived from the fruit, first appearing in this sense in 1542.

Some languages have different words for the bitter and the sweet orange, such as Modern Greek nerantzi and portokali, respectively. Or in Persian, the words are narang and porteghal (Portugal), in the same order. The reason is that the sweet orange was brought from China or India to Europe during the 15th century by the Portuguese. Some languages refer to it as Applesin (or variants), which means "Apple from China", while in Puerto Rico "jugo de china" refers to orange juice,The bitter orange was introduced through Persia.

Several Slavic languages use the variants pomaranč (Slovak), pomeranč (Czech), pomaranča (Slovene), pomarańcza (Polish) from old French pomme d'orenge.

Juice and other products

Oranges and orange juice

Kinnow, a variety of Mandarin orange widely cultivated in Pakistan

Marmalade

Octyl ethanoate is responsible for the fragrance of oranges.

Oranges are widely grown in warm climates worldwide, and the flavours of oranges vary from sweet to sour. The fruit is commonly peeled and eaten fresh, or squeezed for its juice. It has a thick bitter rind that is usually discarded, but can be processed into animal feed by removal of water, using pressure and heat. It is also used in certain recipes as flavouring or a garnish. The outer-most layer of the rind can be grated or thinly veneered with a tool called a zester, to produce orange zest. Zest is popular in cooking because it contains the oil glands and has a strong flavour similar to the fleshy inner part of the orange. The white part of the rind, called the pericarp or albedo and including the pith, is a source of pectin and has nearly the same amount of vitamin C as the flesh.

Products made from oranges
Orange juice is one of the commodities traded on the New York Board of Trade. Brazil is the largest producer of orange juice in the world, followed by the USA. It is made by squeezing the fruit on a special instrument called a "juicer" or a "squeezer." The juice is collected in a small tray underneath. This is mainly done in the home, and in industry is done on a much larger scale.

Frozen orange juice concentrate is made from freshly squeezed and filtered orange juice.


Sweet orange oil is a by-product of the juice industry produced by pressing the peel. It is used as a flavouring of food and drink and for its fragrance in perfume and aromatherapy. Sweet orange oil consists of about 90% d-limonene, a solvent used in various household chemicals, such as to condition wooden furniture, and along with other citrus oils in grease removal and as a hand-cleansing agent. It is an efficient cleaning agent which is promoted as being environmentally friendly and preferable to petroleum distillates.

However, d-Limonene is classified from slightly toxic to humans to very toxic to marine life in different countries. Its smell is considered more pleasant by some than those of other cleaning agents.

Although once thought to cause renal cancer in rats, limonene now is known as a chemopreventive agent with potential value as a dietary anti-cancer tool in humans. There is no evidence for carcinogenicity or genotoxicity in humans. The Carcinogenic Potency Project estimates that it causes human cancer on a level roughly equivalent to that caused by exposure to caffeic acid via dietary coffee intake. The IARC classifies d-limonene under Class 3: not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans.


The orange blossom, which is the state flower of Florida, is highly fragrant and traditionally associated with good fortune. It has long been popular in bridal bouquets and head wreaths for weddings.
Orange blossom essence is an important component in the making of perfume.

The petals of orange blossom can also be made into a delicately citrus-scented version of rosewater; orange blossom water (aka orange flower water) is a common part of both French and Middle Eastern cuisines, most often as an ingredient in desserts and baked goods.

In the United States, orange flower water is used to make orange blossom scones and marshmallows.
The orange blossom gives its touristic nickname to the Costa del Azahar ("Orange-blossom coast"), the Castellon seaboard.


In Spain, fallen blossoms are dried and then used to make tea.


Orange blossom honey, or actually citrus honey, is produced by putting beehives in the citrus groves during bloom, which also pollinates seeded citrus varieties. Orange blossom honey is highly prized, and tastes much like orange.

Marmalade, a conserve usually made with Seville oranges. All parts of the orange are used to make marmalade: the pith and pips are separated, and typically placed in a muslin bag where they are boiled in the juice (and sliced peel) to extract their pectin, aiding the setting process.
Orange peel is used by gardeners as a slug repellent.
Orange leaves can be boiled to make tea.

Orange wood sticks (also spelt orangewood) are used as cuticle pushers in manicures and pedicures, and as spudgers for manipulating slender electronic wires

Orange wood is a flavouring wood in meat grilling much as mesquite, oak, pecan and hickory are used.

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In 1927, H.B. Frost developed the Pixie mandarin orange, one of the 40 varieties of fruit to originate at the UC Riverside Citrus Research Center.


In the 1930s, UC Berkeley food scientist William Cruess invented the canned fruit cocktail.

In 1948, now-legendary UC Davis viticulturalist Harold P. Olmo created the perlette green table grape, one of 30 varieties he developed.

‘Pixie’ is one of the very best mandarins, and has a proud place in Ladera Frutal’s Tangerine Reality, previously depicted on 13 November, 2005.

‘Pixie’ ripens a bit later in the season.
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