Tuesday, September 27, 2011

Drumsticks cultivation


Drumstick Tree- This name is also used for the Golden Shower Tree (Cassia fistulosa).
drumsticks
 
 
Scientific classification

Biological name : Moringa oleifera 
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Brassicales
Family: Moringaceae
Genus: Moringa
Species: M. oleifera
Moringa oleifera, the word Moringa probably came from dravidian language Tamil and commonly referred to as "Shojne" in Bengali, "Munagakaya" in Telugu, "Shenano" in Rajasthani, "Shevaga" in Marathi, "Nuggekai" in Kannada, "Moringa" (from Tamil: Murungakai, Malayalam: Muringa, Konkani: Mashinga sanga), and Malunggáy in Filipino, is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Moringa, which is the only genus in the family Moringaceae.

It is an exceptionally nutritious vegetable tree with a variety of potential uses. The tree itself is rather slender, with drooping branches that grow to approximately 10 m in height. In cultivation, it is often cut back annually to 1 meter or less and allowed to regrow so that pods and leaves remain within arm's reach.

The "Moringa" tree is grown mainly in semi-arid, tropical, and subtropical areas, corresponding in the United States to USDA 





hardiness zones 9 and 10. While it grows best in dry sandy soil, it tolerates poor soil, including coastal areas. It is a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree that is native to the southern foothills of the Himalayas in northwestern India. Reports that it grows wild in the Middle East or Africa are completely unsubstantiated. Today it is widely cultivated in Africa, Central and South America, Sri Lanka, India, Mexico,Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.
drumsticks sappling


 It is considered one of the world’s most useful trees, as almost every part of the Moringa tree can be used for food or has some other beneficial property. In the tropics, it is used as forage for livestock, and in many countries, Moringa micronutrient liquid, a natural anthelmintic (kills parasites) and adjuvant (to aid or enhance another drug) is used as a metabolic conditioner to aid against endemic diseases in developing countries.


Distribution

A traditional food plant in Africa, this little-known vegetable has potential to improve nutrition, boost food
security, foster rural development, and support sustainable landcare.


General nutrition

The leaves contains:
Ø      4 times as much Vitamin A as carrots
Ø      7 times as much Vitamin C as Oranges
Ø      Double as much proteins and calcium as milk.
Ø      And additionally Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B3,  Iron, Zinc, Potassium and many more minerals.
The immature green pods called “drumstick” are probably the most valued and widely used part of the tree. They are commonly consumed in India and are generally prepared in a similar fashion to green beans and have a slight asparagus taste. The seeds are sometimes removed from more mature pods and eaten like peas or roasted like nuts.
drumsticks seeds
The flowers are edible when cooked, and are said to taste like mushrooms. The roots are shredded and used as a condiment in the same way as horseradish; however, it contains the alkaloid spirochin, a potentially fatal
drumsticks seed
nerve-paralyzing agent. The presence of this compound is not worrying because large amounts are required to elicit deleterious effects, and spirochin even displays antibacterial properties when consumed in smaller amounts.
Drumsticks tree is very much useful for helth :



It has been found that giving young children Moringa leaves will improve their health and increase weight. Children who regular get Moringa leaves will have less risk for getting malnourished and the leaves help malnourished children to recover.

Pregnant mothers eating Moringa regularly have recovered from Anemia and give birth to healthier children with higher birth weight.
drumsticks flower
The leaves will assist people living with HIV to maintain health and to improve their immune system to fight diseases. The flowers and roots contain a compound called pterygospermin that has power full medical value.
drumstick tree with  ripen and green drumsticks
The leaves are highly nutritious, being a significant source of beta-carotene, Vitamin C, protein, iron, and potassium. The leaves are cooked and used like spinach. In addition to being used fresh as a substitute for spinach, its leaves are commonly dried and crushed into a powder, and used in soups and sauces.Murungakai, as it is locally known in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, is used in Siddha medicine. The tree is a good source for calcium and phosphorus. In Siddha medicines, these drumstick seeds are used as a sexual virility drug for treating erectile dysfunction in men and also in women for prolonging sexual activity.
drumsticks ready to cook
Moringa leaves and pods are helpful in increasing breast milk in the breastfeeding months. One tablespoon of leaf powder provide 14% of the protein, 40% of the calcium, 23% of the iron and most of the vitamin A needs of a child aged one to three. Six tablespoons of leaf powder will provide nearly all of the woman's daily iron and calcium needs during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
drumsticks flowers
Ben Oil (edible) from drumsticks seeds : Drumsticks nut oil wad used by ancient Egyptians. The drumsticks or moringa seeds yield 38–40% edible oil (called ben oil from the high concentration of behenic acid contained in the oil). The refined oil is clear and odorless and resists
ben oil (drumsticks oil)

rancidity at least as well as any other botanical oil. The seed cake remaining after oil extraction may be used as a fertilizer or as a flocculent to purify water.Oil can also be extracted from drumsticks flowers. The bark,
drumsticks flower fry

sap, roots, leaves, seeds, oil, and flowers are used intraditional medicine in several countries. In Jamaica, the sap is used for a blue dye.
Drumsticks flowers as vegetable :


This extremely fast growing woody species (Moringa oleifera, Moringaceae)  could open up a new category of crops: "vegetable trees." It also produces masses of very small leaflets that are boiled and eaten like spinach. Being so small, the leaflets sun dry in just a few hours and can then be put in a jar and stored for the off-season, a time when dietary minerals and vitamins are often scarce. Moringa seeds could be employed to make water safer for drinking and cooking. 

The flowers are  cooked and relished as a delicacy in West Bengal,India and
drumsticks flower cutlet
Bangladesh, especially during early spring. There it is called shojne ful and is usually cooked with green peas and potato.
drumsticks tree
Drumsticks leaves used as vegetable : Normally tender leaves are used  as vegetable . Leaves are
plucked from the tree  and separated from stems . Oil,green chilly,onion,garlic are normally used for preparation of delicious drumdticks leaves fry . In south India  coconuts are used to make it more delicious.

Malnutrition

Moringa trees have been used to combat malnutrition, especially among infants and nursing mothers. It is advocated  Moringa as "natural nutrition for the tropics." Leaves can be eaten fresh, cooked, or stored as dried powder for many months without refrigeration, and reportedly without loss of nutritional value. Moringa is especially promising as a food source in the tropics because the tree is in full leaf at the end of the dry season when other foods are typically scarce.
dry drumsticks with seeds
A large number of reports on the nutritional qualities of Moringa now exist in both the scientific and the popular literature. It is commonly said that Moringa leaves contain more Vitamin A than carrots, more calcium than milk, more iron than spinach, more Vitamin C than oranges, and more potassium than bananas,” and that the protein quality of Moringa leaves rivals that of milk and eggs. However, the leaves and stem of M. oleifera are known to have large amounts of their calcium bound in calcium oxalate crystals, which is not a form of calcium available to the body. Whether the claim of "more calcium than milk" includes this non-bioavailable calcium needs to be addressed. The oral histories recorded by Lowell Fuglie in Senegal and throughout West Africa report countless instances of life saving nutritional rescue that are attributed to Moringa.
drumsticks flowers
In fact, the nutritional properties of Moringa are now so well-known that there seems to be little doubt of the substantial health benefit to be realized by consumption of Moringa leaf powder in situations where starvation is imminent. Nonetheless, the outcomes of well-controlled and well-documented clinical studies would still be clearly of great value.
In many cultures throughout the tropics, differentiation between food and medicinal uses of plants (e.g. bark, fruit, leaves, nuts, seeds, tubers, roots, and flowers), is very difficult because plant uses span both categories, and this is deeply ingrained in the traditions and the fabric of the community.
In traditional Indian medicine, children and adults used to drink a cup of decoction (kasayam) every Sunday, normally after an oil bath, made of ginger, garlic, a piece of Murungai tree bark (Murungai pattai ..in Tamil) and Mavelingam tree bark (mavelinga pattai, and the root nodules of Kolinji plant (a leguminous plant with nitrogen nodules in the root).
Cultivation In the Philippines, Moringa is commonly grown for its leaves, which are used in soup. The leaves (called dahon ng malunggay in Tagalog, bulung malungge Kapampangan or dahon sa kamunggay in Cebuano) are commonly sold in local markets.
Philippines:
In the Philippines, Moringa is commonly grown for its leaves, which are used in soup. The leaves (called dahon ng malunggay in Tagalog, bulung malungge Kapampangan or dahon sa kamunggay in Cebuano) are commonly sold 


in local markets. In the Philippines, Moringa is commonly grown for its leaves, which are used in soup. The leaves (called dahon ng malunggay in Tagalog, bulung malungge Kapampangan or dahon sa kamunggay in Cebuano) are commonly sold in local markets.
drumsticks ready  for vegetable
Malunggáy is propagated by planting 1–2 m long limb cuttings, preferably from June to August. The plant starts bearing pods 6–8 months after planting, but regular bearing commences after the second year, continuing for several years. It can also be propagated by seeds, which are planted an inch below the surface and can be germinated year-round in well-draining soil.

As with all plants, optimum cultivation depends on producing the right environment for the plant to thrive. Malunggáy is a sun and heat-loving plant, and thus does not tolerate freeze or frost.
India :
India is the largest producer of Moringa, with an annual production of 1.1 to 1.3 million tonnes of tender fruits from an area of 380 km². Among the states, Andhra Pradesh leads in both area and production (156.65 km²) followed by Karnataka (102.8 km²) and Tamil Nadu (74.08 km²). In other states, it occupies an area of 46.13 km². Tamil Nadu is the pioneering state in so much as it has varied genotypes from diversified geographical areas and introductions from Sri Lanka.


young drumsticks tree
Moringa is common in India, where its triangular, ribbed pods with winged seeds are used as a vegetable crop. It is particularly suitable for dry regions. The drumstick can be grown using rainwater without expensive irrigation techniques. The yield is good even if the water supply is not. The tree can be grown even on land covered with 10–90 cm of mud.


Thailand :
Moringa is grown in home gardens and as living fences in Thailand, where it is commonly sold in local markets. 
Taiwan :
Moringa is also actively cultivated by the AVRDC in Taiwan. The AVRDC is "the principal international center for
drumsticks in tree
vegetable research and development in the world. Its mission is to reduce poverty and malnutrition in developing countries through improved production and consumption of vegetables."

Uses
Research has shown the drumstick tree to be of exceptional nutritional value. The leaves are 38% protein with the 8 essential amino acids, which will be of interest to vegetarians, or people who wish to cut back on meat and dairy products. Amino acids in leaves, indicated in milligrams per 100 grams have been recorded as: isoleucine 385, leucine 688, lysine 476, methionine 164, cystine 148, phenylalamine 483, threonine 368, valine 491, arganine 491, histidine 181.
Amino acids in green leaf vegetables vary considerably, and many that are staples, are low in the sulphur bearing amino acids methionine and cystine, whereas in the drumstick tree it is an extremely rich source in comparison to other greens and vegetables. The drumstick tree is listed as the highest protein ratio of any plant on earth. The calcium content is very high at 297mg per 100g of leaves.

Leaves can be eaten fresh in hand, steamed, pickled, added to salads, stir-fries, curries, and soups. Flavour of the pods are similar to peas with a mild mustard taste. Sliced, young green pods can be used in savory and meat dishes. Seeds can be fried or roasted and taste like peanuts. When seeds are abundant they can be sprouted like wheat grass, eaten as tender nutritious greens.

Roots of young seedlings taste similar to the herb horseradish, and are often grated and used as a substitute. Oil of Ben, a by-product of the seed, is an inodorous finegrade oil used in salads, cooking, perfumery, lubricating watches and fine machinery. The oil does not go rancid. Flowers can be eaten or used as a garnish, and look most decorative in salads. Value the tree for its high nutritional value and as a survival food.


The fruit of the tree is quite popular as a vegetable in Asia and Africa. The fruit is a long thin pod resembling a drum stick. The fruit itself is called drumstick in India and elsewhere. Moringa leaves are also eaten as a leaf vegetable, particularly in the Philippines, South India and Africa.

Medicinal Uses


A folk remedy for stomach complaints, catarrh, cancer, gastric ulcers, skin diseases, lowering blood sugar, increasing bone density, nervous conditions, diabetes, fatigue, increase lactation, hay fever, impotence,
edema, cramps, hemorrhoids, headaches, sore gums; to strengthen the eyes and the brain, liver, gall,
digestive, respiratory and immune system, and as a blood cleanser and blood builder.

A traditional folk remedy was to use the leaves as a poultice on the abdomen to expel intestinal worms. An infusion of leaves is used as an eye wash for treating conjunctivitis. Oil from the seed, called Oil of Ben, is
used for earache and in ointments for skin conditions. The oil rubbed on the skin is said to prevent
mosquitoes from biting. Flowers infused in honey are used as a cough remedy.


Pungent oil can be obtained from the roots of this tree that is more like mustard oil .Not only this the root
itself is very popular as it can be utilised as a cure for painful throats.Gum exuded from the wood of the
tree is used in Indian native medicine .A coarse fibre that is obtained from the bark of the tree is useful for
making mats ,paper and cordage .

India

drumsticks curry




Recipes from drumsticks:
drumsticks leaves fry


The Moringa pod is known as "munga", saragwa or saragwe in India and is often referred to as "drumstick" in 
drumsticks sambar


English. In South India, it is used to prepare a variety of sambar .


Maldives

The leaves are often fried and mixed with dried-fried tuna chips (Maldive fish), onions and dried chillies. This is equivalent to a sambar and eaten along with rice and curry or Garudhiya. The pods are called "Muranga Tholhi" and it is used to cook a mild curry called "Kiru Garudhiya".


Other uses

The tree's bark, roots, fruit, flowers, leaves, seeds, and gum are also used medicinally. Uses include as an antiseptic and in treating rheumatism, venomous bites, and other conditions.
Extract from the seeds is used as a flocculant in a low-cost form of water treatment. In February 2010, Current Protocols in Microbiology published a step by step extraction and treatment procedure to produce "90.00% to 99.99%" bacterial reduction. The seeds are also considered an excellent biofuel source for making biodiesel.

However,in Phillipines extensive research works have been done on medicinal properties of drumsticks tree .

Nutritional
• Flowers, young leaves and young pods eaten as a vegetable inn the Philippines, Malaya, and India.
• In Malaya, seeds also eaten as peanuts.
• Roots are used as seasoning because of it horseradish flavor.
• Young leaves are a rich source of calcium, iron, phosphorus and vitamins A, B and C.
• High in HDL (high density lipoproteins); a source of amino acids, omega oils, antioxidants.
• Young fruit yield a high amount of protein and phosphorus, a fair source of calcium and iron,
• Comparative content: Gram for gram, 7 times the vitamin C in oranges, 4 times the calcium and twice the protein in milk, 4 times the vitamin A in carrots, 3 times the potassium in bananas.
• 100 gms or 1 cup of cooked malunggay leaves contain 3.1 g protein, 0.6 g fiber, 96 mg calcium, 29 mg phosphorus, 1.7 mg iron, 2,820 mg beta-carotene, 0.07 mg thiamin, 0.14a mg riboflavin, 1.1 mg niacin, and 53 mg of vitamin C. (Dr. Lydia Marero of the Food and Drug Research Institute -FNRI)


Folkloric

- Decoction of leaves used for hiccups, asthma, gout, back pain, rheumatism, wounds and sores.
- Young leaves, usually boiled, used to increase the flow of breast milk. 
- Pods for intestinal parasitism.
- Leaves and fruit used for constipation.
- Decoction of boiled roots used to wash sores and ulcers.
- Decoction of the bark used for excitement, restlessness.
- In India pounded roots used as poultice for inflammatory swelling. Flowers used for catarrh, with young leaves or young pods.
- In Nicaragua decoction of roots used for dropsy.
- Roots have been used as abortifacient. In India, bark is used as abortifacient.
- Decoction of root-bark used as fomentation to relieve spasms; also, for calculous affections.
- Gum, mixed with sesamum oil, used for relief of earaches. Same, also reported as abortifacient.
- In Java, gum used for intestinal complaints.
- Roots chewed and applied to snake bites.
- Decoction of roots is considered antiscorbutic; also used in delirious patients.

- Juice of roots is used for otalgia.
- Bark used as rubefacient remedy.
- Decoction of roots is use as gargle for hoarseness and sore throat.
- Leaves used as purgative.
- Chewing of leaves used in gonorrhea to increase urine flow.
- Fresh roots used as stimulant and diuretic.
- Seeds for hypertension, gout, asthma, hiccups, and as a diuretic.
- Rheumatic complaints: Decoction of seeds; or, powdered roasted seeds applied to affected area.
- Juice of the root with milk used for asthma, hiccups, gout, lumbago.
- Poultice of leaves applied for glandular swelling.
- Pounded fresh leaves mixed with coconut oil applied to wounds and cuts.
- The flowers boiled with soy milk thought to have aphrodisiac quality.
- Root is rubefacient and plaster applied externally as counterirritant.
- In West Bengal, India, roots taken by women, esp prostitutes, for permanent contraception (Studies have shown total inactivation or suppression of the reproductive system)
.

Others

Dye: In Jamaica the wood is used for dyeing blue color.
Oil: known as ben oil, extracted from flowers can be used as illuminant, ointment base, and absorbent in the enfleurage process of extracting volatile oils from flowers. |With ointments, the oil allows longer shelf life without undergoing oxidation.The oil, applied locally, has also been helpful for arthritic pains, rheumatic and gouty joints.

Breastfeeding women 

• Malunggay leaves and pods are helpful in increasing breast milk in the breastfeeding months. One tablespoon of leaf powder provide 14% of the protein, 40% of the calcium, 23% of the iron and most of the vitamin A needs of a child aged one to three. Six tablespoons of leaf powder will provide nearly all of the woman's daily iron and calcium needs during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

Studies

Drumsticks or Moringa preparations have been cited often in scientific literature as antibiotic, antiinflammatory, hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic. However, many of the reports are not placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials. 

Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-tumor: Anti-inflammtory and Antitumor Activities of Seeds Extracts of MalunggayA study showed the crude ethanol extract of dried seeds inhibited the carrageenan-induced inflammation in the hind paw of mice by 85% at a dosage of 3 mg/g body weight;  the mature green seeds by 77%. The crude ethanol extract also inhibited the formation of Epstein-Barr virus-early antigen (EBV-EA) induced by 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). At a dosage of 100 ?g/ml, the extract inhibited EBV-EA formation by 100% suggesting its antitumor-promoting activity. 

Ovarian Cancer: Possible Role of Moringa oleifera Lam. Root in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A hormonal etiology of epithelial ovarian cancer has been long suspected. Study suggests M Oleifera can interfere with hormone receptor-related and neoplastic growth-related cytokine pathways through centrally acting mechanisms.

Asthma: Antiasthmatic activity of Moringa oleifera LamA clinical study: Study showed improvement in forced vital capacity, FEV1, and peak expiratory flow rate. It suggests a usefulness for MO seed kernel in patients with asthma.

Antibiotic: 
50 years ago, a study yielded Pterygospermin, a compound that readily dissociates into two molecules of benzyl isothiocyanate which has been shown to have antimicrobial properties. Unfortunately, many of the reports of antibiotic efficacy in humans were not from placebo controlled, randomized clinical trials. Recent studies have demonstrated possible efficacy against H. pylori.

Hormonal properties / Abortifacient: Biochemical observations and histologic findings have been correlated with the anti-implantation action of aequous extracts, one possible explanation for its use as an abortifacient. 

Antiurolithiatic: Study showed lowering of stone forming constituents in the kidneys of calculogenic rats with the use of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of MO suggesting antiurolithiatic activity.

Antimicrobial / Water Purifyiing: Study of MO seeds paste for water purification yielded a steroidal glycoside, strophantidin, a bioactive agent in the seed. The seed paste was found effective in clarification and sedimentation of inorganic and organic matter in raw water, reducing total microbial and coliform counts by 55% and 65% respectively, in 24 hours, compared to alum with 65% and 83% reduction.

Antipyretic / Wound Healing: Study of the ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of MO showed significant antipyretic activity in rats; the ethyl acetate extract of dried leaves showed significant wound healing on rat wound models.

Analgeic: Previous studies have shown analgesic activity from the leaves of MO. This study on the alcoholic extract of MO seeds showed potent analgesic activity comparable to that of aspirin dose of 25 mg/kg BW.

Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant: Study concluded that the alcoholic extracts of MO produced significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity, the aqueous extracts of the fruit less than the alcoholic extract
.
Anti-Ulcer: Study of M oleifera extract showed ulcer by protection by modulating 5-HT secretion through EC dell via 5-HT3 receptors in the gastrointestinal tract.

Anthelmintic: In a comparative study of the anthelmintic activity of M oleifera and V negundo against Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma, dose-dependent activity was observed with M oleifera showing more activity than V negundo.

Comparison with Atenolol: Study comparing the effects of M oleifera with atenolol in adrenaline-induced rats on serum cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose level, heart and body weight showed the M oleifera leave extract made significant changes in each cardiovascular parameter.

Hepatoprotective: Study in acetaminophen-induced liver disease in mice showed that leaves of MO can prevent hepatic injuries by preventing the decline of glutathione level.

Antioxidant / Hypolipidemic / Anti-Atherosclerotic: Study showed lowering of cholesterol levels and reduction of the atherosclerotic plaque formation. Results indicate MO possesses antioxidant, hypolipidemic and antiatherosclerotic activities and has therapeutic potential for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

Chemomodulatory / Chemopreventive: Study showed the possible chemopreventive potential of Moringal oleifera against chemical carcinogenesis.

Anti-Diabetic: Study of the aqueous extract of MO leaves in STZ-induced sub, mild, and severely diabetic rats produced lowering of blood glucose levels, significant reduction in urine sugar and urine protein levels. Study validates scientifically claims on MO as ethnomedicine in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

In the news 

• In Leyte, extracted malunggay juice is mixed with lemonsito juice to make ice candies or cold drinks, making it more plalatble and agreeable to children who detest vegetables.
Because of its high vitamin A, C, and E content, all potent antioxidants, malunggay is a very effective in removing unstable free radicals that is damaging to molecules and pro-aging.

For the men: The fruit could increase the sperm count !

For increasing breast milk: One rounded tablespoon of leaf powder provides 14% of protein requirements, 40% of calcium, 23% of iron, and the daily vitamin A needs of a child aged one to three. Six rounded tablespoons of leaf powder will provide the woman's daily iron and calcium needs during pregnancy and breast-feeding.

Recent uses and preparation 

Constipation: Eat  one or two cups of the cooked leaves at supper time, with plenty of water.
Wound wash: Apply crushed leaves directly to the wound, maintaining cleanliness duriing the process.
Biofuel source 

Drumsticks or Moringa oil extracted from the seed of the drumsticks or  malunggay plant is now being tapped as source of biodiesel. It is gaining preferable status over Jatropha as a source of biofuel. All parts of the malunggay plant are used whereas Jatropha is left with poisonous waste after oil extraction. Also, malunggay needs only one to two years for seedling maturation compared to Jatropha's three to five years. The math of malunggay's commercial potential is attractive.

Toxicities

Root bark contains 2 alkaloids, as well as the toxic hypotensive moringinine.

Has dose-dependent negative inotropic effect, in isolated frog heart study.
Niazinin A, niazimicin and niaziminin A and B isolated from the ethanol extract produced hypotensive, bradycardic and negative inotropic effects in experimental animals.
The bark may cause violent uterine contractions that can be fatal. Chronic high-dose use may cause liver and kidney dysfunctions.
In frequent or large doses, Interior flesh of the plant can cause toxic nerve paralysis from the alkaloid spirochin. 


Names
Other names for Moringa in English include:
   -"Drumstick tree", from the appearance of the long, slender, triangular seed pods.
   - "Horseradish tree", from the taste of the roots, which can serve as a rough substitute for horseradish.
   -"Ben oil tree", from the oil derived from the seeds
The Chinese name of the Moringa , pronounced "la mu" in Mandarin and "lat mok" in Cantonese, means "spicy (hot) wood", and is reminiscent of the English name "horseradish tree".
In some Indian-origin languages, the name is phonetically somewhat similar to Moringa, while in others it is quite different.
  -The MMPND entry for Moringa gives names in many other languages.
  -In Assamese, it is called Sojina.
  -In Punjabi, it is called Surajana.
  -In Tamil, the tree is called Murungai Maram  and the fruit is called Murungai-kaai .
  -In Hindi, it is called sahjan .
  -In Urdu, it is called Sohanjna.
  -In Marathi, it is called Shevaga .
  -In Rajasthani, it is called Shenano.
  -In Malayalam, it is known as Muringa, and the fruit is called Muringakaya or Muringakka.
  -In Dhivehi (Maldivian) , it is called Muranga.
  -In Kannada, it is known as Nuggekayee .
  -In Tulu, it is known as Noorggaee.
  -In Telugu, it is known as Munagachettu , and the fruit is called Munagakaya .
  -In Konkani, it is called Muska Saang or Mashinga Saang.
  -In Gujarati, it is called Saragvo.
  -In Oriya, it is called Sajana or Sujuna.
  -In Bengali, it is called Shojne danta .
  -In Nepali, it is known as Sajiwan or Swejan.
  -In Guyana, it is called Sijan.
  -In Hausa language, it is called Zogale
  -In Sinhalese, it is called Murunga.
  -In Sindhi language, it is called Sohenjara. The fruit may also be called Singi or Singyu
  -In Thai, it is called ma rum .
  -The Tagalog name in the Philippines - Malunggay - is also phonetically similar to "Moringa". In Ilocano, another Filipino language, it is called Marungay. It is called Kamunggay in Visayan. Malunggein Pampango or Kapampangan. In the Bikol language, it is referred to as Kalunggay.
  -In Vietnamese, it is called "chùm ngây".
  -In Haiti, the Moringa is called the benzolive (or benzolivier).
  -In Nicaragua, the plant is referred to as Marango.
  -In Indonesian, the Moringa is called kelor (kalor in Malay).
  -In Javanese, it is called limaran.
  -In Mooré (Burkina Faso), it is called "Arzan Tiiga," which means "tree of paradise".
  -In Zarma (Niger), it is called Windi Bundu which means, loosely, "fencepost wood", a reference to its use as live fencing. The leaves are the primary part eaten, and in fact are so common that the Zarma word "kopto", or "leaf", is synonymous with cooked Moringa leaves.
  -In Dioula (Côte d'Ivoire), it is called "Arjanayiiri".
  -In Mauritius, the leaves are called "Brède Mouroum", while the drumstick part is known as "Bâton Mouroum".
  -In Konkani (Goa) it is called Saang or Maska Saang or Mashinga Saang.
  -In Ilokano it is called marunggay or marunggi.
  -In Myanmar (Burma) it is called "Dandalun".
  -In Chichewa language of Malawi they call it " Cham'mwamba"
  -In Madagascar it is called "ananambo"
The fruit meat of drum sticks, including young seeds, is good for soup. Young leaves can either be fried with shrimp or added as a topping in fish soup. Dandalun leaves soup is said to increase urination and thus benefit the kidneys. It is widely used in Myanmar traditional medicine.

No comments:

Post a Comment