Sunday, September 11, 2011

Groundnut Cultivation

The peanut, or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), is a species in the legume or "bean" family (Fabaceae). The peanut was probably first cultivated in the valleys of Peru. It is an annual herbaceous plant growing 30 to 50 cm (0.98 to 1.6 ft) tall. The leaves are opposite, pinnate with four leaflets (two opposite pairs; no terminal leaflet), each leaflet 1 to 7 cm (⅜ to 2¾ in) long and 1 to 3 cm (⅜ to 1 inch) broad.
groundnut fields of gujarat(India)

The flowers are a typical peaflower in shape, 2 to 4 cm (¾ to 1½ in) across, yellow with reddish veining. Hypogaea means "under the earth", after pollination, the flower stalk elongates causing it to bend until the ovary touches the ground. Continued stalk growth then pushes the ovary underground where the mature fruit develops into a legume pod, the peanut. Pods are 3 to 7 cm (1.2 to 2.8 in) long, containing 1 to 4 seeds.
groundnuts with seeds

Peanuts are known by many other local names such as earthnuts, ground nuts, goober peas, monkey nuts, pygmy nuts and pig nuts.


Ceramic peanut

In peru  in Moche Culture  about  300 A.D., ceramics were found painted with groundnuts and   presently
preserved in Larco Museum, Lima, Peru .

The domesticated peanut is an amphidiploid or allotetraploid, meaning that it has two sets of chromosomes from two different species, thought to be A. duranensis and A. ipaensis. These likely combined in the wild to form the tetraploid species A. monticola, which gave rise to the domesticated peanut.The domestication might have taken place in Paraguay or Bolivia, where the wildest strains grow today. Many pre-Columbian cultures, such as the Moche, depicted peanuts in their art.

Archeologists have (thus far) dated the oldest specimens to about 7,600 years found in Peru. Cultivation spread as far as Mesoamerica where the Spanish conquistadors found the tlalcacahuatl (Nahuatl = 'peanut,' whence Mexican Spanish, cacahuate and French, cacahuète) being offered for sale in the marketplace of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City). The plant was later spread worldwide by European traders.

Growth Of Groundnut Plant

There are 4 types of groundnut plants based on the growth habit:

Spanish (bunch),
Virginia (bunch), 

verginia jumboo groundnut seeds

Virginia (runner) and
Valencia (bunch).

In the Spanish (bunch) group, the plants

-grow erect,
-possess light-green leaves,
-have round, plump non-dormant seeds, with light-rose testa,
spanish grounds with plant

-small pods, rarely have more than 2 seeds/pod,
-produce pods in clusters at the base of the plant, and
-popularly cultivated type.

In Virginia bunch and runner type,

-the branches crawl either partially or completely on the surface of the soil,

-produce large pods all along them,
-possess dark-green foliage,

-have oblong, dormant brownish seeds and
-late maturing but yield higher than bunch types.

In Valencia bunch type,

-very sparse branching habit
-dark green foliage

-seeds long or short
-seed coats purple, red, russet, or tan
-many pods may have 3-4 seeds
-are relatively unimportant

After sowing, seedlings emerge in 5-10 days, depending on sowing depth and soil moisture.

Bunch types do not possess seed dormancy. But seed of spreading types have a dormant period of 1-6 months, after harvest, depending on temperature and storage conditions. However, the dormancy can be broken by heat treatment or ethylene treatment.

The plants usually grow slowly until about 40 days after planting. Peanut plants start flowering about 25 to 40 days after planting (Fig). Growth is more rapid between 40 to 100 days. During this period a four- to five-fold increase in peanut foliage occurs.

Groundnuts can flower (orange yellow) over a long period (20-60 days), depending on moisture availability, and temperature. The flowering period is considerably shorter in bunch type of cultivars than in spreading types.

The flowers are born mostly near the base of plant. It is a self pollinated crop i.e its own pollen fertilizes the ovules. After fertilization stalk of ovary elongates and forms peg which contains fertilized ovules at the tip. The pegs penetrate the soil up to a depth of 7 cm and then grows horizontally when the ovary starts developing as a pod containing seeds.

Growing ovary.
-Aerial peg, 5 to 7 days.
-Peg soil penetration, 8 to 12 days.
-Beginning of pod enlargement, 14 to 21 days.
-Early stage in pod development.
-Immature pod.

Normally 60-80 days are required for pod development from flowering to maturation in spreading types and slightly less than that (50-60 days) in bunch types. Vegetative development declines during pod filling.
germination of groundnut seeds

Bunch type takes 85 to 100 days to mature and spreading cultivars mature in 110 to 130 days under warm conditions.


In India Peanut or Ground-nut is normally a 2nd Crop for the farmers in Karwar District of Karnataka and other places.The sand-loamy soil which is water logged during the monsoons, yields a good salt-tolerant Paddy crop in October/November, and when the water dries up, it is pefect for sowing the groundnut crop.
groundnut field in karwar,karnataka(India)

This crop does not need much irrigation, and it strives on the ground-water that is left over from the monsoons. The origins of Groundnut Cultivation is not known to the farmers. A Google search on the topic gives  this Information :-
growing groundnut seeds

 History of the Groundnut Crop in India- "... the Portuguese conquered Goa from Bijapur rulers in 1510. They had a flourishing trade with Vijayanagara, and to whom they supplied horses. Portuguese rule in Goa had far reaching effects. They introduced new floras like groundnut, chilly, tobacco etc., besides printing technology from the New World."

                   Peanut shells, with one split open revealing two seeds with their brown seed coats

The orange-veined, yellow-petaled, pea-like flower of the Arachis hypogaea is borne in axillary clusters above ground. Following self-pollination, the flowers fade and wither. The stalk at the base of the ovary, called the pedicel, elongates rapidly, and turns downward to bury the fruits several inches in the ground, where they complete their development. The entire plant, including most of the roots, is removed from the soil during harvesting.
harvested groundnuts left to dry

The pods act in nutrient absorption. The fruits have wrinkled shells that are constricted between pairs of the one to four (usually two) seeds per pod.

Peanuts grow best in light, sandy loam soil. They require five months of warm weather, and an annual rainfall of 500 to 1,000 mm (20 to 39 in) or the equivalent in irrigation water.
groundnut seeds

The pods ripen 120 to 150 days after the seeds are planted. If the crop is harvested too early, the pods will be unripe. If they are harvested late, the pods will snap off at the stalk, and will remain in the soil.

Peanuts are particularly susceptible to contamination during growth and storage. Poor storage of peanuts can lead to an infection by the mold fungus Aspergillus flavus, releasing the toxic and highly carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. The aflatoxin-producing molds exist throughout the peanut growing areas and may produce aflatoxin in peanuts when conditions are favorable to fungal growth.
groundnut stakes in Nigeria

Harvesting occurs in two stages. In mechanized systems, a machine is used to cut off the main root of the peanut plant by cutting through the soil just below the level of the peanut pods. The machine lifts the "bush"
groundmut digging machine

from the ground and shakes it, then inverts the bush, leaving the plant upside down on the ground to keep the peanuts out of the soil. This allows the peanuts to dry slowly to a bit less than a third of their original moisture level over a period of three to four days. Traditionally, peanuts are pulled and inverted by hand.

After the peanuts have dried sufficiently, they are threshed, removing the peanut pods from the rest of the bush.

Cultivation in China

The peanut was introduced to China by Portuguese traders in the 17th century and another variety by American missionaries in the 19th century.
groundnut field of Jilin,China

They became popular and are featured in many Chinese dishes, often being boiled. During the 1980s, peanut
groundnut harvested and staked in China

 production began to increase so greatly that as of 2006, China was the world's largest peanut producer.
groundnut harvester in China

A major factor in this increase was the household-responsibility system, which moved financial control from the government to the farmers.


China leads in production of peanuts, having a share of about 41.5% of overall world production, followed by India (18.2%) and the United States of America (6.8%).

Groundnut output in 2005
Top ten producers of peanuts in 2008/2009Country Production

(Million Metric Tons)
People's Republic of China 14.30
India 6.25
United States 2.34
Nigeria 1.55
Indonesia 1.25
Myanmar 1.00
Sudan 0.85
Senegal 0.71
Argentina 0.58
Vietnam 0.50
World 34.43

Source: USDA Foreign Agricultural Service: Table 13 Peanut Area, Yield, and Production


Thousands of peanut cultivars are grown, with four major cultivar groups being the most popular: Spanish, Runner, Virginia, and Valencia. There are also Tennessee red and white groups. Certain cultivar groups are preferred for particular uses because of differences in flavor, oil content, size, shape, and disease resistance. For many uses the different cultivars are interchangeable. Most peanuts marketed in the shell are of the Virginia type, along with some Valencias selected for large size and the attractive appearance of the shell. Spanish peanuts are used mostly for peanut candy, salted nuts, and peanut butter. Most Runners are used to make peanut butter.
Chines groundnut shelling mahine

The various types are distinguished by branching habit and branch length. There are numerous varieties of each type of peanut. There are two main growth forms, bunch and runner. Bunch types grow upright, while runner types grow near the ground.

Each year new cultivars of peanuts are bred and introduced. Introducing a new cultivar may mean change in the planting rate, adjusting the planter, harvester, dryer, cleaner, sheller, and method of marketing.

Spanish group

The small Spanish types are grown in South Africa, and in the southwestern and southeastern U.S. Prior to 1940, 90% of the peanuts grown in Georgia, USA were Spanish types, but the trend since then has been larger-seeded, higher-yielding, more disease-resistant cultivars. Spanish peanuts have a higher oil content than other types of peanuts and in the U.S. are now primarily grown in Oklahoma and Texas.
Chinese groundnut roaster

Cultivars of the Spanish group include "Dixie Spanish", "Improved Spanish 2B", "GFA Spanish", "Argentine", "Spantex", "Spanette", "Shaffers Spanish", "Natal Common (Spanish)", "White Kernel Varieties", "Starr", "Comet", "Florispan", "Spanhoma", "Spancross", "OLin", "Tamspan 90", "AT 9899-14", "Spanco" "Wilco I", "GG 2", "GG 4" and "TMV 2".
Runner group

Since 1940, the southeastern U.S. region has seen a shift to production of Runner group peanuts. This shift is due to good flavor, better roasting characteristics and higher yields when compared to Spanish types leading to food manufacturers' preference for use in peanut butter and salting. Georgia's production is now almost 100% Runner type.
preparation of groundnut field

Cultivars of Runners include "Southeastern Runner 56-15", "Dixie Runner", "Early Runner", "Virginia Bunch 67", "Bradford Runner", "Egyptian Giant" (also known as "Virginia Bunch" and "Giant"), "Rhodesian Spanish Bunch" (Valencia and Virginia Bunch), "North Carolina Runner 56-15", "Virugard", "Georgia Green", "Tamrun 96", "Flavor Runner 458", "Tamrun OL01", "Tamrun OL02" and "AT-108".

Roasted peanuts as snack food

Virginia group

The large seeded Virginia Group peanuts are grown in the following US states: Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and parts of Georgia. They are increasing in popularity due to demand for large peanuts for processing, particularly for salting, confections, and roasting in the shells.

Virginia Group peanuts are either bunch or running in growth habit. The bunch type is upright to spreading. It attains a height of 45 to 55 cm (18 to 22 in), and a spread of 70 to 80 cm (28 to 31 in), with 80 to 90 cm (31 to 35 in) rows that seldom cover the ground. The pods are borne within 5 to 10 cm of the base of the plant.

Cultivars of Virginia type peanuts include NC 7, NC 9, NC 10C, NC-V 11, VA 93B, NC 12C, VA-C 92R, Gregory, VA 98R, Perry, Wilson, Hull, AT VC-2 and Shulamit.

Valencia group

Valencia Group peanuts are coarse, and they have heavy reddish stems and large foliage. In the U.S., large commercial production is primarily in Eastern New Mexico, especially in and around Portales, New Mexico, but they are grown on a small scale elsewhere in the South as the best

flavored and preferred type for boiled peanuts. They are comparatively tall, having a height of 125 cm (49 in) and a spread of 75 cm (30 in). Peanut pods are borne on pegs arising from the main

stem and the side branches. Most of the pods are clustered around the base of the plant, and only a few are found several inches away. Valencia types are three seeded and smooth, with no constriction between the seeds. Seeds are oval and tightly crowded into the pods. There are two strains, one with flesh and the other with red seeds. Typical seed weight is 0.4 to 0.5 g.

Tennessee Red and Tennessee White groups
These are alike, except for the color of the seed. Sometimes known also as Texas Red or White, the plants are similar to Valencia types, except that the stems are green to greenish brown, and the pods are rough, irregular, and have a smaller proportion of kernels.

Varied applications

Peanuts have many uses. They can be eaten as straight food, used in recipes, made into solvents and oils, used in make-up, medicines, textile materials, peanut butter, as well as many other uses. Popular confections made from peanuts include salted peanuts, peanut butter (sandwiches, peanut candy bars, peanut butter cookies, and cups), peanut brittle, and shelled nuts (plain/roasted). Peanuts, served by themselves, are one of the most popular nuts in the world. They are often eaten as snacks, served at cocktail parties and are sometimes added as a nutritional side dish with lunch. Salted peanuts are usually roasted in oil and packed in retail-size plastic bags or hermetically sealed cans. Dry roasted, salted peanuts are also marketed in significant quantities. Peanuts are often a major ingredient in mixed nuts because of their inexpensiveness compared to Brazil nuts, cashews, walnuts, and so on. Although peanut butter has been a tradition on camping trips and the like because of its high protein count and the fact that it resists spoiling for long periods of time, the primary use of peanut butter is in the home, but large quantities are also used in the commercial manufacture of sandwiches, candy, and bakery products. Boiled peanuts are a preparation of raw, unshelled green peanuts boiled in brine and eaten as a snack in the United States. More recently, fried peanut recipes have emerged - allowing both shell and nut to be eaten. Peanuts are also used in a wide variety of other areas, such as cosmetics, nitroglycerin, plastics, dyes and paints.

Arctic and Antarctic expeditions

While peanuts are nutritional and delicious as an everyday food, during expeditions on foot into the wilderness, especially regions of sub-zero temperatures like the South and North Poles, having peanuts has been the deciding factor between life and death. After learning from the mistakes of other adventurers, especially the tragically ill-prepared Discovery and Terra Nova expeditions to the South Pole lead by Captain Robert Falcon Scott and Captain Oates from 1901 to 1912 (during which the majority of the expedition died), where starvation and lack of the proper amount of calories needed to keep from freezing were a constant danger, adventurers had to decide on a type of food that was dense, portable, high in protein and calories and could be eaten at any time without preparation. Subsequent expeditions thus settled on peanut butter as the ideal foodstuff, freeing explorers from the transport and kindling of cooking fuel (a near-impossibility in the frigid polar winds), and high enough in protein and calories to fuel the party and keep them from freezing to death in the harsh weather and freezing nighttime temperatures. Peanut butter was further favored for speed and ease of use because it could be eaten while walking if necessary.

Groundnut or Peanut oil

Peanut oil is often used in cooking, because it has a mild flavor and a relatively high smoke point. Due to its high monounsaturated content, it is considered more healthy than saturated oils, and is resistant to rancidity. There are several types of peanut oil including: aromatic roasted peanut oil, refined peanut oil, extra virgin or cold pressed peanut oil and peanut extract. In the United States, refined peanut oil is exempt from allergen labeling laws.
Peanut flour
groundnut flour crusher

Peanut flour is lower in fat than peanut butter, and is popular with chefs

because its high protein content makes it suitable as a flavor enhancer. Peanut flour is used as a

gluten-free solution.


Peanuts are common ingredients in Peruvian cuisine reflecting the marriage of native ingredients and ingredients introduced by Europeans. In one example peanuts are roasted along with hot peppers (both native to South America) and blended with roasted onions, garlic, and oil (all of European origin) to make a smooth sauce poured over boiled potatoes. This dish is especially famous in the city of Arequipa and is known as "papas con ocopa". Another example combines a similar mixture with sautéed seafood or boiled and shredded chicken in the form of a fricassee. These dishes are generally known as ajis (the word for hot peppers), such as aji de pollo and aji de mariscos. Not all cooks use peanuts in seafood "ajis".

During Colonial times the Spanish in Peru learned to use ingredients like peanuts in substitution for nuts which were unavailable in Peru. It is well documented that Spanish cuisine makes extensive use of almonds, pine nuts, and other nuts, in ground or paste form, combined with rice, meats and vegetables, to create dishes like rice pilaf. However, almonds, pine nuts, chestnuts, walnuts, etc. were too expensive or unobtainable in Peru.


Crunchy coated peanuts, called kabukim in Hebrew, are a popular snack in Israel. Kabukim are commonly sold by weight at corner stores where fresh nuts and seeds are sold, though they are also available packaged. The coating typically consists of flour, salt, starch, lecithin, and sometimes sesame seeds. An additional variety of crunchy coated peanuts popular in Israel is "American peanuts." The coating of this variety is thinner but harder to crack. The origin of the name is obscure.
Another popular Israeli peanut snack is Bamba. Similar in shape to Cheez Doodles, Bamba puffs are made of corn and flavored with peanut butter.


In Indian sub-continent, peanuts are known as either a light snack by themselves, usually roasted and salted (sometimes with the addition of chilli powder), and often sold roasted in pod on roads in the north, or boiled with salt in the south. They are also made into little dessert or sweet snack pieces by processing with refined sugar and jaggery. Indian cuisine uses roasted, crushed peanuts to give a crunchy body to salads; they are added whole (without pods) to leafy vegetable stews for the same reason. Another use of peanut oil as cooking oil. Most Indians use mustard, sunflower, and peanut oil for cooking.

Southeast Asia

Peanuts are also widely used in Southeast Asian cuisine, particularly Indonesia, where they are typically made into a spicy sauce. Peanuts originally came to Indonesia from the Philippines, where the legume came from Mexico in times of Spanish colonization.

Common Indonesian peanut-based dishes include gado-gado, pecel, karedok and ketoprak, all vegetable salads mixed with peanut sauce, and the peanut-based sauce for satay.

Mali, Senegal, and the Ivory Coast

Peanuts grow well in southern Mali and adjacent regions of the Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, and Senegal. Peanut sauce, prepared with onions, garlic, peanut butter/paste, and vegetables like carrots, cabbage/cauliflower, can be vegetarian (the peanuts supplying ample protein) or prepared with meat, usually chicken.


Peanuts are a common ingredient of several types of relishes (dishes which accompany nshima) eaten by the tribes in Malawi and in the eastern part of Zambia, and these dishes are now common throughout both countries. In this area they are always called groundnuts.

United States

In the U.S., peanuts are used in candies, cakes, cookies, and other sweets. They are also enjoyed roasted and salted. Peanut butter is one of the most popular peanut-based foods in the U.S. In some southern portions of the U.S., peanuts are boiled for several hours until soft and moist. Peanuts are also deep fried, shell and all.

Boiled peanuts

Boiled peanuts are a popular snack in the southern United States, as well as in India and China. Peanuts are also used in the Mali meat stew maafe, and in many sauces for South American meat dishes, especially rabbit.


Peanuts are used to help fight malnutrition. Plumpy Nut, MANA Nutrition, and Medika Mamba are high protein, high energy and high nutrient peanut-based pastes that were developed to be used as a therapeutic food to aid in famine relief. Organizations like the World Health Organization, UNICEF, Project Peanut Butter and Doctors Without Borders have used these products to help save malnourished children in developing countries.

Other uses

Peanuts can be used like other legumes and grains to make a lactose-free milk-like beverage, peanut milk. Peanut plant tops are used for hay.

Low grade or culled peanuts not suitable for the edible market are used in the production of peanut oil. The protein cake (oilcake meal) residue from oil processing is used as an animal feed and as a soil fertilizer. Low grade peanuts are also widely sold as a garden bird feed.

Peanuts have a variety of industrial end uses. Paint, varnish, lubricating oil, leather dressings, furniture polish, insecticides, and nitroglycerin are made from peanut oil. Soap is made from saponified oil, and many cosmetics contain peanut oil and its derivatives. The protein portion of the oil is used in the manufacture of some textile fibers. Peanut shells are used in the manufacture of plastic, wallboard, abrasives, fuel, cellulose (used in rayon and paper) and mucilage (glue). Rudolf Diesel ran some of the first engines that bear his name on peanut oil and it is still seen as a potentially useful fuel.

Nutritional value

Peanuts are rich in nutrients, providing over 30 essential nutrients and phytonutrients. Peanuts are a good source of niacin, folate, fiber, magnesium, vitamin E, manganese and phosphorus. They also are naturally free of trans-fats and sodium, and contain about 25% protein (a higher proportion than in any true nut).


Peanuts are a good source of niacin, and thus contribute to brain health and blood flow.


Recent research on peanuts and nuts in general has found antioxidants and other chemicals that may provide health benefits. New research shows peanuts rival the antioxidant content of many fruits. Roasted peanuts rival the antioxidant content of blackberries and strawberries, and are far richer in antioxidants than carrots or beets. Research conducted by a team of University of Florida scientists, published in the journal Food Chemistry, shows that peanuts contain high concentrations of antioxidant polyphenols, primarily a compound called p-coumaric acid, and that roasting can increase peanuts' p-coumaric acid levels, boosting their overall antioxidant content by as much as 22%.


Peanuts are a significant source of resveratrol, a chemical associated with but not proven to cause a reduction in risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer.

The average amount of resveratrol in one ounce of commonly eaten peanuts (15 whole peanut kernels) is 73 μg.

Coenzyme Q10

Peanuts are a source of coenzyme Q10, as are oily fish, beef, soybeans and spinach.

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