Sunday, October 30, 2011

Diseases of Masoor Dal(Masoor Grams)

Diseases

Ascochyta blight and anthracnose are the two most important diseases followed by botrytis grey mould, sclerotinia white mould, and stemphylium blight. These diseases become most problematic from flowering to maturity. Moulds such as Botrytis and Sclerotinia are widespread but not economically important, except where lodging due to wet conditions occur.


Lentil varieties classified as "resistant" are not completely immune to the diseases. These varieties resist infection and damage to a reasonable extent and under certain
Ascochyta on lentil leaflets
conditions the crop may show few symptoms and suffer little damage. However, if conditions are favourable for disease development and spread, the crop may succumb to the pressure and suffer significant damage. Hence, fungicide application may be needed to assist the plant and control the disease.

Symptoms of the diseases and tme of appearance 

Ascochyta:
Grey to tan spots or lesions on leaflets, stems, flowers and pods, with dark margins and often with tiny black fruiting bodies (pycnidia) in the centers . Lesions first appear on lower leaflets close to soil surface and spread up the plant canopy. Lesions on stems can girdle the plant resulting in wilting. Leaves may turn brown and die off.

Anthracnose: White to grey or cream-colored spots on leaflets and stems . First appear on lower leaves and stem and move up the canopy. Leaves and entire plants may die back and stems of mature and
Anthracnose on lentil stems

dead plants often blacken. Leaflets litter soil surface. Leaf symptoms appear between eight to 12 node stages - approximately one week before flowering. Lesions on stems can girdle the plant resulting in wilting. Yellow patches appear in fields and enlarge as the disease spreads and plants die.

sclerotinia-botrytis on lentils
Botrytis Grey Mould: Infected seeds produce infected seedlings which die soon after emergence, resulting in reduced plant density. For the rest of the crop, symptoms appear later in the season and include wilting, premature ripening, failure of pods to fill, and dead, infected crop areas. Grey mouldy growth on stems and pods is visible throughout the canopy . These are the sources of the clouds of spores seen dispersed during harvesting.

Sclerotinia White Mould: Root system and base of plant brown and rotten and may have white mould growing on them . Plants first turn yellow, later infected areas become bleached and shredded.

stemphylium blight on lentils
Stemphylium Blight:
Symptoms appear initially as small, light beige lesions on leaves/leaflets. Small lesions coalesce to produce large, irregularly shaped lesions which kill entire branches .

Scouting of lentil crops for ascochyta and anthracose
Early identification of diseases is critical as it allows for timely decisions to commence fungicide application and minimize crop damage. Begin scouting at the eight to 10 node stage (prior to flowering) and scout every five to seven days.

Methods of  scouting for ascochyta and anthracnose 


Scouting should be started with high risk areas and fields. Selection and flagging can be done at least in five to 10 random locations (in an "M" pattern) in the field. Early symptoms are similar for both diseases. At each point, small (pinhead size) brown to dark brown spots at the lower parts of the plants are to be searched.
Better to use a magnifying glass and field guides with photos. Under humid conditions, these spots expand quickly into lesions described under symptoms above. It is to be noted that anthracnose lesions are more commonly observed on stems.

Diagnosys of  these diseases 

 It is advised to use field guides with photos or seek assistance of a qualified agronomist. For conclusive identification,one can send a sample to the Provincial Crop Protection Lab .

Preparation of  samples for submission to Crop Protection Lab 

 To ensure that samples get to the lab in the best condition, it is better to keep them moist and aerated.Plants are to be dug out with a lump of soil still attached to the roots. The soil is to be moistened and wrapped with
 a plastic film  and base of the plant. Whole plant is to be kept in a box that allows air circulation. The samples are to be mailed to the lab, preferably by courier. Sending samples at the end of the week should be avoided as they may get stuck in the mailroom over the weekend. For sample submission forms it is better to see the Agriculture websites under Features | Crops | Crop Management | Crop Protection Lab Services.

Ccontrol  of  diseases in  lentil crops 

A number of foliar fungicides are registered for the control of both ascochyta and anthracnose - namely: Bravo, Dithane, Headline, Manzate, Penncozeb, and Quadris. Lance is registered for the control of ascochyta blight, sclerotinia and botrytis. Proline is registered for the control of ascochyta blight and sclerotinia white mould. It is better to follow Agriculture Guide to Crop Protection  for details on foliar fungicides.

Note: in lentils, applications are generally ineffective in controlling sclerotinia white mould and botrytis grey mould because these diseases do not develop until the crop canopy is too dense to allow penetration of the fungicide.

Spraying fungicides 

 The optimal time for control of ascochyta and anthracnose is at the 10 to 12 node stage or early flowering. It is too late to control anthracnose when severe lesions can be found at the stem base, and when the crop is no longer flowering. The threshold for fungicide application is set at a risk value of 50 . If the risk value is less than 50, a fungicide application is not warranted, but a new risk assessment should be made at three to five days intervals until the crop is no longer flowering. If well timed, a single fungicide application is usually sufficient in controlling lentil diseases.

Yield reduction  

If ascochyta spreads to the top of the canopy and wet conditions prevail, infection may lead to flower and pod abortion resulting in significant yield losses - as much as 50 per cent. More economic losses are incurred due to reduction in grain quality. Anthracnose is capable of causing yield losses in excess of 50 per cent and is much more destructive than ascochyta.

Prevention of  the diseases 


Crop rotation is key to preventing these diseases as it allows time for the lentil residue on which the fungi survive to decompose. It is better to allow four years between lentil crops. The highest levels of anthracnose are usually observed on fields with a history of lentils every second year.It is advised to avoid planting lentil adjacent to previous year's lentil fields to reduce residue and windborne spread of the pathogens. Plant seed that has been tested at an accredited lab and known to have zero or acceptable levels of seed borne diseases and high germination. Seed treatments  should be done to protect the seed and seedlings from seed-borne diseases. It is always advisable to choose varieties classified as disease resistant when available.

Thursday, October 27, 2011

Massor Dal Cultivation














Masoor Dal (Masoor Beans) 

Scientific classification
Kingdom                        : Plantae
(unranked)                      : Angiosperms
(unranked)                      : Eudicots
(unranked)                      : Rosids
Order                             : Fabales
Family                            : Fabaceae
Subfamily                       : Faboideae
Tribe                              : Vicieae
Genus                             : Lens
Species                           : L. culinaris
Binomial name                 : Lens culinaris

The lentil (Lens culinaris)  is an edible pulse. It is a bushy annual plant of the legume family, grown for its lens-shaped seeds. It is about 40 centimetres (16 in) tall and the seeds grow in pods, usually with two seeds in each.

The plant likely originated in India, and lentils have been part of the human diet since the aceramic (pottery

nonproducing) Neolithic times, being one of the first crops domesticated in the Near East. Archeological evidence shows they were eaten 13,000 to 9,500 years ago.

Lentil colors range from yellow to red-orange to green, brown and black. Lentils also vary in size (e.g., Masoor lentils), and are sold in many forms, with or without the skins, whole or split.

Other pulses are sometimes called lentils, but are actually beans or peas, e.g. "black lentils" (urad beans).

Types

Brown/Spanish pardina
French green/puy lentils (dark speckled blue-green)
Green
Black/beluga (not actually true lentils; see urad bean)
Yellow/tan lentils (red inside)
Red Chief (decorticated yellow lentils)
Eston Green (Small green)
Richlea (medium green)
Laird (large green)
Petite Golden (decorticated lentils)
Masoor (brown-skinned lentils which are orange inside)
Petite crimson/red (decorticated masoor lentils)
Macachiados (big Mexican yellow lentils)

The seeds require a cooking time of 10 to 30 minutes, depending on the variety–shorter for small varieties with the husk removed, such as the common red lentil–and have a distinctive, earthy flavor. Lentils are used

throughout South Asia, the Mediterranean regions and West Asia. They are frequently combined with rice, which has a similar cooking time. A lentil and rice dish is referred to in west Asia as mujaddara or mejadra. Rice and lentils are also cooked together in khichdi, a popular dish in the Indian subcontinent; a similar dish,

kushari, made in Egypt, is considered one of two national dishes. Lentils are used to prepare an inexpensive and nutritious soup all over Europe and North and South America, sometimes combined with some form of chicken or pork.

Dried lentils can also be sprouted by leaving in water for several days, which changes their nutrition profile.

Lentils with husk remain whole with moderate cooking; lentils without husk tend to disintegrate into a thick purée, which leads to quite different dishes.


Nutritional value and health benefits
Lentils, raw (dry weight)Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy                             - 1,477 kJ (353 kcal)
Carbohydrates                 - 60 g
- Sugars                           -   2 g
- Dietary fiber                  -  31 g
Fat                                  -    1 g
Protein                            -  26 g
Thiamine (vit. B1)            -     0.87 mg (76%)
Folate (vit. B9)                -  479 μg (120%)
Iron                                 -  7.5 mg (58%)

With about 30% of their calories from protein, lentils, like other legumes, have the third-highest level of protein, by weight, of any plant-based food, after soybeans and hemp. Proteins include the essential amino acids isoleucine and lysine, and are an essential source of inexpensive protein in many parts of the world,

especially in the West Asia and the Indian subcontinent, which have large vegetarian populations. Lentils are deficient in two essential amino acids, methionine and cysteine. However, sprouted lentils contain sufficient levels of all essential amino acids, including methionine and cysteine.

Lentils also contain dietary fiber, folate, vitamin B1, and minerals. Red (or pink) lentils contain a lower concentration of fiber than green lentils (11% rather than 31%). Health magazine has selected lentils as one of the five healthiest foods. Lentils are often mixed with grains, such as rice, which results in a complete protein dish.

Lentils also have antinutritional factors, such as trypsin inhibitors and relatively high phytate content. Trypsin is an enzyme involved in digestion, and phytates reduce the bioavailability of dietary minerals. The phytates can be reduced by soaking the lentils in warm water overnight.

Lentils are a good source of iron.

Production
entils are relatively tolerant to drought, and are grown throughout the world. FAO reported the world production of lentils for calendar year 2009 was 3.917 million metric tonnes, primarily coming from Canada, India, Turkey and United States.

About a quarter of the worldwide production of lentils is from India, most of which is consumed in the domestic market. Canada is the largest export producer of lentils in the world, and Saskatchewan is the most

important producing region in Canada. Statistics Canada estimates that Canadian lentil production for the 2009/10 year is a record 1.5 million metric tonnes.

The Palouse Region of Eastern Washington and the Idaho Panhandle, with its commercial center at Pullman, WA, constitutes the most important lentil-producing region in the United States. Montana and North Dakota are also significant lentil growers.

National Agricultural Statistics Service reports United States 2007 production at 154.5 thousand metric tonnes.
Top ten lentil producers – 2009
Country                     Production (tonnes)

 Canada                 1,510,200
 India                        950,000
 Turkey                     302,181
 United States           265,760
 Australia                  143,000
 Ethiopia                   123,777
 China                      120,000
 Syria                       102,461
 Iran                           83,985
 Bangladesh                60,537
 World                  3,917,923

In culture

Lentils are mentioned many times in the Old Testament, the first time recounting the incident in which Jacob purchases the birthright from Esau with stewed lentils (a "mess of pottage"). In Jewish mourning tradition, they are considered as food for mourners, together with boiled eggs, because their round shape symbolizes the life cycle from birth to death.

Lentils were the main ingredient in the diet of ancient Iranians, who consumed lentils daily in the form of a stew poured over rice.

Lentils are also commonly used in Ethiopia in a stew-like dish called kik, or kik wot, one of the dishes people eat with Ethiopia's national food, injera flat bread. Yellow lentils are used to make a nonspicy stew, which is one of the first solid foods Ethiopian women feed their babies.

In Shia narrations, lentils are said to be blessed by seventy Prophets including Jesus and Mohammed.

In Italy, eating lentils on New Year's Eve traditionally symbolizes the wish to earn more money next year, most likely because of their round coin-like shape.

In "Cinderella", one of Grimm's Fairy Tales, a task her stepmother assigns Cinderella is fishing lentils out of ash. If she succeeds, she may go to the ball
While whole, this bean is greenish-brown, even though they can be prepared whole (masoor beans) Indian recipes often call for the skinned and split masoor, which is called masoor dal. Skinned split Masoor beans are actually called red lentils (orange in color).


They have a dark, earthy flavor and a creamy texture. These lentils pair well with tomatoes and kheema/mince meats, sausages, and may be served on their own as a side dish, or incorporated into soups, stews, salads and Indian dal.

For more information on other crops please log on to"www.vpkas.nic.in". The Institute has made outstanding contribution to improve the crop production in North-West Himalayas region, by        developing 120 improved varieties of 25 crops.                                                                                      

Black Gram(Urad Dal) Diseases

Anthracnose

Causal Organism
Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, C. capsisi

Damage 


The fungus attacks all aerial part parts and at any stage of plant growth.
Symptoms are circular, black, sunken spots with dark center and bright red orange margins on leaves and pods.
In severe infections, the affected parts wither off.
Seedlings get blighted due to infection soon after seed germination.

Survival & Favourable Conditions
The pathogens survive on seed and plant debris
Disease spreads in the field through air-borne conidia.
The disease is more sever in cool and wet seasons.

Cultural Control
Hot water treatment at 54 degree centigrade for 10 min.
Use disease free seed.
Follow crop rotation

Chemical Control
Spray mancozeb 0.3% or carbendazim 0.5/Litre.                                                                                           

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Bacterial Leaf Blight

Causal Organism
Xanthomonas phaseoli

Damage 

It is characterized by many brown, dry and raised spots on the leaf surface.
When the disease is severe several such spots coalesce, the leaves become yellow and fall off prematurely.
The lower surface of the leaf appears red in colour due to the formation of raised spots.
The stem and pods also get infected.

Survival & Favourable Conditions
The bacterium is seed-borne and through vines grow perennially.
Rain splashes play an important role in the development and spreading of the disease.

Cultural Control
Grow tolerant varieties of the disease.
Use disease free seed

Mechanical Control
Destruction of debris and stubbles.

Chemical Control
Soaking the seed in 500 ppm Streptocycline solution for 30 min. before sowing followed by two sprays of     Streptocycline combined with 3 g of Copper Oxychloride per litre at an interval of 12 days is recommended.

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Cercospora leaf spot

Causal Organism
Cercospora canescens

Damage 

Spots produced are small, numerous in number with pale brown centre and reddish brown margin. Similar spots also occur on branches and pods.
Under favourable environmental conditions, severe leaf spotting and defoliation occurs at the time of flowering and pod formation.

Survival & Favourable Conditions
The fungus is seed-borne and also survives on plant debris in the soil.
High humidity favours disease development.

Cultural Control
Cultivate resistant varieties.
Intercrop the moong with tall growing cereals and millets.
Follow clean cultivation.
Use disease free seed.
Maintain low crop population density and wide row planting.

Biological Control
The crude extracts of cassava, spiny amaranth, poinsettia, ipil-ipil, alascuatro, tagetes, garlic, mayana and zinger are applied for controlling the disease effectively.

Mechanical Control
Mulching reduces the disease incidence resulting in increase yield.                                                               
Chemical Control                                                                                                                                       
Cercospora leaf spot was effectively controlled by only a spray of Carbendazim (0.05%) at 30 days after       sowing.                                                                                                                                                         

 
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Corynespora Leaf Spot

Causal Organism
Corynespora cassiicola

Damage 

By this disease yields decrease drastically.
Symptoms of this disease develop on leaves when the crop reaches flowering stage.
Lesions begin as dark reddish brown circular spot usually on the upper surface of the leaf and they expand to become larger spots.
In advanced stages the spots coalesce to form patches. Shot-holing and severe defoliation is a marked symptom in advanced stages of infection.

Survival & Favourable Conditions
The fungus is seed-borne and can survive on host debris for two years.

Cultural Control
Use tolerant varieties LBG 167.

Chemical Control
Corynespora leaf spot was effectively controlled by only a spray of                                                               

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Leaf Curl

Causal Organism
Leaf Curl Virus

Damage 

An important and potential killer of green gram plants, more severe in Kharif season.
The earliest symptoms appear on youngest leaves as chlorosis around some lateral veins and its branches near the margin.
The leaves show curling of margin downwards.
Some of the leaves show twisting.
The veins show reddish brown discolouration on the under surface which also extends to the petiole.
Plants showing symptoms within 5 weeks after sowing invariably remain stunted and majority of these die due to top necrosis within a week or two.
Plants infected in late stages of growth do not show severe curling and twisting of the leaves but show conspicuous venial chlorosis any where on the leaf lamina.

Survival & Favourable Conditions
The disease develops in the fields mainly through seed or rubbing of diseased leaves with the healthy ones.

Cultural Control
Timely sowing.
Complete field and crop sanitation.
Take control measures for thrips.

Chemical Control
The virus is transmitted by thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis, and hence can be managed by controlling thrips by spraying 1 g Acephate or 2 ml Dimethoate per litre.
 
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Leaf Crinkle Virus

Causal Organism
Rhizotonia solani

Damage 

The disease usually attacks black gram in all seasons.
Characterized by enlargement of leaves followed by crinckled surface of leaf lamina.
The crinckling is more pronounced on younger leaves.
Flowering is delayed by 8-10 days.
Inflorescence turns bushy in appearance.
Pod setting is curtailed which decreases the yield drastically.

Survival & Favourable Conditions
The virus is seed transmitted. Whiteflies, aphids and epilachna beetles also transmit the disease.

Cultural Control
The viral diseases can be controlled by applying following measures.
The crop must be sown timely.
The spacing between the lines should be maintained at 30 to 40 cms.
Only certified seeds should be used for sowing.
If the seeds are not treated then seed treatment should be done.
In endemic areas only tolerant and resistant varieties should be used.
Weeds plants should be rouged out at their inception.
Insect, fungal and nematode vectors should be controlled using suitable pesticides.
Control white fly as it spreads the virus.
Grow resistant varieties like ADT-3.
Removal and quick burning of the infected plant.

Chemical Control
Seed-borne infection can be eliminated by hot water treatment of seed at 55 deg C for 30 minutes              
Spraying insecticides 3 weeks after sowing to control sucking pests can help checking the spread of the          disease.                                                                                                                                                        

 
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Macrophomina Blight

Causal Organism
Macrophomina phaseolina

Damage 

In pre-emergence stage, the fungus causes seed rot and rotting of germinating seedlings.
In post-emergence stage, seedlings get blighted due to soil or seed borne infection.
Decay of secondary roots and shredding of the cortex region of the tap root are symptoms.
Small, circular, brown spots appear on the cotyledons or on young leaves.
At podding stage, some of the veins in the leaf develop copper colour.
As the severity increases, drooping of leaves occurs due to weakening and breakage of the veins. Such leaves droop, dry and shed.

Survival & Favourable Conditions
The pathogen can survive through seed, soil, diseased plant parts and host plants.
The severity of the disease increases with the increase in temperatures.
Fungus survives in upper layers of the soil and enters plant through stem.

Cultural Control
Deep ploughing.
Clean cultivation.
Crop rotation with non pulse crop.

Mechanical Control
Destroy the diseased plant debris by burning of burying in the soil.

Chemical Control
Seed treatment with carbendazim + Thiram 1:2.                                                                                             
 
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Powdery Mildew

Causal Organism

Erysiphe polygoni DC

Damage 

White powdery patches appear on leaves and other green parts which later become dull coloured. These patches gradually increase in size and become circular covering the lower
surface also.
When the infection is severe, both the surfaces of the leaves are completely covered by whitish powdery growth. Severely affected parts get shriveled and distorted.
In severe infections, foliage becomes yellow causing premature defoliation. The disease also creates forced maturity of the infected plants which results in heavy yield losses.

Survival & Favourable Conditions
The pathogen has a wide host range and survives in oidial form on various hosts in off-season.
Secondary spread is through air-borne oidia produced in the season.

Cultural Control
Use resistant varieties
The seeds must be sown early in the month of June to avoid early incidence of the disease on the crop.

Chemical Control
Powdery mildew could be controlled by spraying Carbendazim (0.05%) and Penconalzole (0.05%)            
Two spray of Carbendazim or Thiophanate Methyl 1 g ml or Tridemorph 1 ml per litre, one dose immediately after the disease appearance and the second dose 15 days later effectively manage                                      
the disease                                                                                                                                                
  

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Root Rot and Leaf Blight


Causal Organism
Rhizoctonia solani

Damage 

The pathogens cause seed decay, root rot, damping-off, seedling blight, stem canker and leaf blight in green gram.
The disease occurs commonly at podding stage.
In the initial stages, the fungus causes seed rot, seedling blight and root rot symptoms.
The affected leaves turn yellow in colour and brown irregular lesions appear on leaves.
On coalescence of such lesions, big blotches are formed and the affected leaves start drying prematurely.
Roots and basal portion of the stem become black in colour and the bark peels off easily.
The affected plants dry up gradually.
When the tap root of the affected plant is split open, reddening of internal tissues is visible.

Survival & Favourable Conditions
The pathogen is soil-borne.

Cultural Control
Grow resistant varieties.
Avoid moisture stress in the soil especially at podding stage.

Biological Control
Seed treatment with 4g Trichoderma viride formulation

Chemical Control
Seed treatment is effective is reducing the disease incidences.                                                                      
Seed treatment with Thiram + Carbendazim (2:1) 0.25% seed reduces the disease.                                        


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Rust
 
Causal Organism

Uromyces phaseoli

Damage

The disease appears as circular reddish brown pustules which appear more commonly on the underside of the leaves, less abundant on pods and sparingly on stems.
When leaves are severely infected, both the surfaces are fully covered by rust pustules.
Shriveling followed by defoliation resulting in yield losses.

Cultural Control
Use tolerant varieties

Chemical Control
Spray Mancozeb 3g to control of the disease.                                                                                               
 
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Seed and Seedling Rot

Causal Organism
Rhizoctonia solani, Macrophomina phaseolina
Pythium aphanidermatum, Sclerotium rolfsii

Damage


Several fungi growing on the seed coat of green gram cause rotting of the seeds resulting in failure of germination.
Leaves of affected seedlings dry and die suddenly.
Basal portion of the stem weakens and appears brown in colour.
Dried seedlings are seen sparsely here and there in the field within 3 weeks after sowing.

Survival & Favourable Conditions
The pathogens are soil-borne.

Cultural Control
Green gram cultivars, PS 16 and Pusa Bisaki are tolerant.
Seed treatment is advised.

Biological Control
Seed treatment with 4g Trichoderma viride formulation

Chemical Control
Seed treatment with 3g Thiram per kilogram of seed can reduce the disease incidence.                                
 

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Stem canker

Causal Organism
Macrophomina phaseolina

Damage


In rice fallows, symptoms appear on 4 weeks old black gram crop as raised white cankers at the base of the stem.
These enlarge gradually and turn as raised brown streaks spreading upwards.
Plants are stunted and leaves dark green, mottled and reduced in size.
Normal leaves on the affected plants drop suddenly and dry.
Flowering and podding is greatly reduced.
When the affected plants are split open vertically from the collar downwards reddish discolouration of the internal tissues is clearly visible while the internal root tissues appear white.

Survival & Favourable Conditions
Fungus survives in upper layers of the soil and enters plant through stem.

Cultural Control
Use tolerant varieties.
Field and crop sanitation.
Summer ploughing.
Crop rotation.

Chemical Control
Seed treatment with carbendazim + Thiram 1:2.                                                                                             
 
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Yellow Mosaic Virus

Causal Organism
Yellow Mosaic Virus

Damage

The disease is prevalent on black gram.
Initially mild scattered yellow spots appear on young leaves.
The next trifoliate leaves emerging from the growing apex show irregular yellow and green patches alternating with each other.
Spots gradually increase in size and ultimately some leaves turn completely yellow.
Infected leaves also show necrotic symptoms.
Diseased plants are stunted, mature late and produce very few flowers and pods.
Pods of infected plants are reduced in size and turn yellow in colour.

Survival & Favourable Conditions
The disease is transmitted by whitefly, Bemisia, tabaci.

Cultural Control
Use reistant/ tolerant varieties.
The viral diseases can be controlled by applying following measures.
The crop must be sown timely.
The spacing between the lines should be maintained at 30 to 40 cms.
Only certified seeds should be used for sowing.
If the seeds are not treated then seed treatment should be done.
In endemic areas only tolerant and resistant varieties should be used.
Weeds plants should be rouged out at their inception.
Insect, fungal and nematode vectors should be controlled using suitable pesticides.
Control white fly as it spreads the virus.

Biological Control
Conserve Paecilomyces farinosus fungus, a parasite of whitefly.

Chemical Control
Apply 10% phorate granules at the rate of 1kg/ha in the soil before sowing.                                                    
OR                                                                                                                                                               
Control white fly using insecticides.                                                                                                                
********************************************************************************** 

Urad Dal(Black Gram/Biri) Cultivation



Vigna mungo(Black Gram/Urad Dal)

Scientific classification
 
Kingdom                : Plantae
(unranked)              : Angiosperms
(unranked)              : Eudicots
(unranked)              : Rosids
Order                     : Fabales
Family                    : Fabaceae
Subfamily               : Faboideae
Tribe                      : Phaseoleae
Genus                     : Vigna
Species                   : V. mungo
Binomial name         :Vigna mungo



Black grams are also called Black Beluga Lentils. Whole Urad dal/dahl is used more like a chili or stew than a soup or dal/dahl. These lentil-like beans have black skins covering creamy white interiors. Whole urad dal/dahl derive their strong, rich, earthy flavor from the black skins and have an uncanny ability to absorb flavors.


Split and without the skin Urad dal is a white lentil used along with rice to make dosas, the crisp pancakes of southern India and other Rice preparations. In South India, Urad dal is used as a seasoning with mustard seeds for curries.

Black Gram(Urad Dal) Cultivation 

Urad Dal - white lentils
Vigna mungo, known  as urad, urad dal, udad dal, urd bean, urd', urid, black matpe bean, black gram, black lentil  or white lentil, is a bean grown in southern Asia. It is largely used to make dal from the whole or split, dehusked seeds. It, along with the mung bean, was placed in Phaseolus, but has since been transferred to Vigna. At one time it was considered to belong to the same species as the mung bean.

Black gram originated in India
, where it has been in cultivation from ancient times and is one of the most highly prized pulses of India. The coastal Andhra region in Andhra Pradesh is famous for black gram after

paddy. The Guntur District ranks first in Andhra Pradesh for the production of black gram. Black gram has also been introduced to other tropical areas mainly by Indian immigrants.

It is an erect, suberect or trailing, densely hairy, annual herb. The tap root produces a branched root system with smooth, rounded nodules. The pods are narrow, cylindrical and up to six cm long. The bean is boiled

and eaten whole or, after splitting, made into dal; prepared like this it has an unusual mucilaginous texture.
Urad dal idli

Ground into flour or paste, it is also extensively used in South Indian culinary preparations, such as dosa, idli, vada, and papadum. When used this way, the white lentils are usually used.

It is nutritious and is recommended for diabetics, as are other pulses. It is very popular in the Punjabi

cuisine of India and Pakistan, where it is known as sabit maash, an ingredient of dal makhani. In Telugu, it is known as minumulu , in Kannada as uddina bele , in Tamil as ulunthu, and in Oriya as biri dali.

The product sold as "black lentil" is usually the whole urad bean or urad dal. The product sold as "white lentil" is the same lentil with the black skin removed.

Vigna mungo is used in traditional Indian(Ayurveda) medicine. Pharmacologically, extracts have demonstrated immunostimulatory activity.
 
Climate : Blackgram is basically a warm weather crop. It comes up in areas receiving annual rainfall of 600-1000mm. It is grown from sea level upto an attitude of 1800m. Optimum temperature requirement is 28 to 32°C. If temperature is <10°C germination doesn't takes place. It is a short-day plant and most cultivars flower in 12-13 hrs photoperiod. Flowering gets delayed with extended photoperiod. As elevation increases flowering is delayed due to low ambient temperature.

Soils: It is grown on a variety of Soils ranging from sandy to heavy black cotton soils. It prefers water
urad dal dosa
 retentive heavy soils. Well drained heavy soils with a pH ranging from 5.0 to 7.5 appears to be ideal. It cann't withstand saline and alkaline conditions.

Seasons: Blackgram can be cultivated through out the year both as rainfed and irrigated crop. It is
predominantly a rainfed crop during rainy and post rainy seasons.

Kharif
: Largely grown as intercrop under rainfed conditions. To a limited extent it is grown as sole crop. First fortnight of Jul is the optimum sowing time.

Rabi:
Grown on stored soil moisture, largely as sole crop on water retentive heavy soils October second fortnight - opt.sowing time.

Late Rabi: As a relay crop on receeding soil moisture in standing kharif rice before a week of its harvest as sole crop. Optimum time of sowing is Jan-Feb depending on the harvest of rice.

Summer: To a limited extent it is grown as a irrigated crop, especially after the harvest of Rabi rice crop. Second fortnight of April is optimum time of sowing.

Varieties: A number of improved varieties have been developed to suit location specific requirements.

Please log on to "www.naipsrl,org" for more information on agriculture                                                          

Mung(beans) Dal Cultivation

Scientific classification

Kingdom         : Plantae
(unranked)       : Angiosperms
(unranked)       : Eudicots
(unranked)       : Rosids
Order              : Fabales
Family              : Fabaceae
Genus              : Vigna
Species            : V. radiata
Binomial name  : Vigna radiata
Synonyms        : Phaseolus aureus Roxb.

Mung dal/Moong Dal (whole and split)
They are small, ovoid in shape, and green in color. The English word mung derives from the Hindi word mūṅg.The mung bean is one of many species recently moved from the genus Phaseolus to Vigna, and is still often seen incorrectly cited as Phaseolus aureus or Phaseolus radiatus.

Whole moong is actually a bean or pulse and is known as 'sabat moong' . They are small green beans fairly used in India, China, Thailand and Japan. Sprouted they are used in salads or stir fries with lemon juice or vinaigrette.

 History of domestication & cultivation

The mungbean was domesticated in India, where its wild progenitor (Vigna radiata subspecies sublobata) occurs wild. Archaeological evidence has turned up carbonized mungbeans on many sites in India. Areas with

early finds include the eastern zone of the Harappan civilization in Punjab and Haryana, where finds date back about 4500 years, and South India in the modern state of Karnataka where finds date back more than 4000 years. Some scholars therefore infer two separate domestications in the northwest and south of India. In South India there is evidence for evolution of larger-seeded mungbeans 3500 to 3000 years ago. By about

3500 years ago mungbeans were widely cultivated throughout India. Cultivated mungbeans later spread from India to China and Southeast Asia. Archaeobotanical research at the site of Khao Sam Kaeo in southern Thailand indicates that mungbeans had arrived in Thailand by at least 2200 years ago. During the era of Swahili trade, in the 9th or 10th century, mungbeans also came to be cultivated in Africa, indicated by finds on Pemba Island.

Mung beans are known under a variety of names in different languages:

Assamese      : mugu dali, mogu dail
Bengali          : moog dal, moog, moong, or mongo
Oriya             : muga
Chinese         : lǜdòu ( literally "green bean")
Burmese        : pe nauk  or pe ti
East Timor     : monggo or munggo
Filipino           : monggo or munggo
Hindi              : mūṅg
Indonesian      : kacang hijau or katjang idju
Kannada         : hesaru kaalu
Malayalam      : moong dal, cherupayar or cheru payaru
Marathi           : moog dal, moog, moong, or mongo
Pashto            : mai
Sinhala            : mung eta
Swahili            : choroko
Tamil               :paccaippayaru , pāciparuppu
Telugu             : pesara
Vietnamese     : đậu xanh


Uses
In India Moong dal is used, which is split moong beans with the skin left (green skin yellow lentil) on or without the skin(yellow lentil). It is used to make delicious dals and curries. Moong lentils in particular is very easy to digest and take on seasonings and spices very well.

Mung beans are commonly used in Chinese cuisine, as well as in the cuisines of Burma, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Japan, Korea, Philippines, Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, Indonesia, Vietnam, and other parts of Southeast Asia. The starch of mung beans is also extracted from them to make jellies and "transparent" or "cellophane" noodles. Mung batter is used to make crepes named pesarattu in Andhra Pradesh, India.

Whole mung beans are generally prepared from dried beans by boiling until they are soft.  The beans are cooked with sugar, coconut milk, and a little ginger.

Whole beans

Mung beans are light yellow in color when their skins are removed. They can be made into mung bean paste by dehulling, cooking, and pulverizing the beans to a dry paste. In Hong Kong, dehulled mung beans and mung bean paste are made into ice cream or frozen ice pops. Mung bean paste is used as a common filling for Chinese mooncakes in East China and Taiwan.

Dehulled mung beans can also be used in a similar fashion as whole beans for the purpose of making sweet soups. Mung beans in some regional cuisines of India are stripped of their outer coats to make mung dal. In Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, steamed whole beans are seasoned with spices and fresh grated coconut in a preparation called sundal. In south Indian states, mung beans are also eaten as pancakes. They are soaked in water for six to 12 hours (the higher the temperature, the lesser soaking time). Then they are ground into fine paste along with ginger and salt. Then pancakes are made on a very hot griddle. These are usually eaten for breakfast. This provides high quality protein that is rare in most Indian regional cuisines. Pongal or kichdi is another recipe that is made with rice and mung beans without skin.

In Kerala, it is commonly used to make the parippu preparation in the Travancore region (unlike Cochin and Malabar, where toor dal, tuvara parippu, is used). It is also used, with coconut milk and jaggery, to make a type of payasam.

Bean sprouts
Mung bean sprouts are germinated by leaving them watered with four hours of daytime light and spending the rest of the day in the dark. Mung bean sprouts can be grown under artificial light for four hours over the period of a week. They are usually simply called "bean sprouts".

Mung bean sprouts are stir-fried as a Chinese vegetable accompaniment to a meal, usually with ingredients such as garlic, ginger, spring onions, or pieces of salted dried fish to add flavor. Uncooked bean sprouts are used in filling for Vietnamese spring rolls, as well as a garnish for phở. They are a major ingredient in a variety of Malaysian and Peranakan cuisine, including char kway teow, hokkien mee, mee rebus, and pasembor. In Korea, slightly cooked mung bean sprouts, called sukjunamul (hangul), are often served as a side dish. They are blanched (placed into boiling water for less than a minute), immediately cooled in cold water, and mixed with sesame oil, garlic, salt, and often other ingredients. In the Philippines, mung bean sprouts are made into lumpia rolls called lumpiang togue.

Mung bean sprouts are the major bean sprouts in most Asian countries. In China and Korea, soybean sprouts, called kongnamul (hangul) are more widely used in a variety of dishes.

Starch

Mung bean starch, which is extracted from ground mung beans, is used to make transparent cellophane noodles (also known as bean thread noodles, bean threads, glass noodles, fensi , tung hoon, miến, bún tàu, or bún tào). Cellophane noodles become soft and slippery when they are soaked in hot water. A variation of cellophane noodles, called mung bean sheets or green bean sheets, are also available. In Korea, a jelly called nokdumuk (hangul; also called cheongpomuk; hangul:  is made from mung bean starch; a similar jelly, colored yellow with the addition of gardenia coloring, is called hwangpomuk (hangul). In northern China, mung bean jelly is called liangfen , meaning chilled bean jelly), which is very popular food during summer. Jidou liangfen is another flavor of mung bean jelly food in Yunnan, in southern China.
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Creamy lentil and rice dish (khicheri) Veg                                                                                              

Khicheri is made with rice and lentils. Kicheri can be made with brown rice and split green lentils, but it is normally made with white rice and can be made with just about any kind of lentil.

Ingredients

35g/1¼oz white or brown basmati rice, washed in several changes of water

35g/1¼oz mung beans, split and husks removed (or husks left on if using brown rice)

1 rounded tsp ghee

½ tsp cumin seeds

½ small onion, chopped

1 green chilli, whole (optional)

½ tsp chopped fresh ginger

½ garlic clove

salt, to taste

¼ tsp ground turmeric

400ml/14fl oz water (or 500ml/17fl oz if using brown rice)

¼ tsp garam masala

½ tsp freshly ground black pepper

Preparation method

Soak the rice and lentils in a large pan of water for 30 minutes.

In a large non-stick saucepan melt the ghee. Add the cumin and fry for 20 seconds, until the seeds have coloured and their aroma has been released. Stir in the onion and cook until softened.

When the onion has cooked, add the chilli, ginger, garlic and salt and cook for a minute before adding the drained rice, lentils, turmeric and water. Bring to the boil briefly before lowering the heat and simmering gently until the rice and lentils are tender. This should take approximately 20 minutes. (If using brown rice, follow the same method, cooking the rice and lentils for 40 minutes with a little additional water.)

Once tender, stir in the garam masala and freshly ground black pepper and serve.
                       

Sunday, October 23, 2011

Pegeon pea diseases


List of pigeonpea diseases

1 Bacterial diseases                                                                                                                                   
2 Fungal diseases                                                                                                                                       
3 Nematodes, parasitic                                                                                                                              
4 Viral diseases                                                                                                                                          
5 Miscellaneous diseases and disorder                                                                                                    


Bacterial diseasesBacterial diseases
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 

1.Bacterial leaf spot and stem canker       Xanthomonas campestris pv. cajani
                                                                   
                                                                  Bacterial leaf spot and stem canker


                                                                 Causal Organism
                                                                 Xanthomonas campestris pv. cajani
                                                                 Damage 
                                                                 Necrotic spots on leaves with yellow hallow.
                                                                 Defoliation of lower leaves in severe case of infection.
                                                                 Cankerous lesions on stem resulting in their breakage.
                                                                 In severe infestation, the affected branches dry.

                                                                 Survival & Favourable Conditions
                                                                 Warm and humid weather favour disease development.
                                                                 The pathogen is specific to pigeon pea and is seed borne

                                                                  Cultural Control
                                                                  Use resistant varieties.
                                                                  Select well drained fields.
                                                                  Always selects seeds from healthy crops.

                                                                   Chemical Control
                                        Spray antibiotics like streptocycline and 250 ppm i.e. 2.5 g/10 lit of water.  


2.Halo blight                                                  Pseudomonas amygdali pv. phaseolicola
                                                                    ----------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    Halo blight                                                                              
                                                                    Causal Organism
                                                                    Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola

                                                                    Damage 
                                                                    Dark brown angular necrotic spots 1 mm in diameter                                                                                     surrounded by large chlorotic halos 10 mm in diameter are seen                                                                     on the soft, young leaves of older and ratooned plants.

                                                                    Survival & Favourable Conditions
                                                                    Persistent rains and cloudy weather result in severe disease                                                                             development.

                                                                    Cultural Control
                                                                    Always use resistant varieties

                                                                    Chemical Control
                                                                   Spray antibiotics like streptomycine and tetracycline @ 100                                                                                                                                micro gms/litre of water.
                                                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------


2.Fungal Diseases

Disease Name                   Casual Organisms
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

Alternaria blight                      Alternaria alternata
                                              Alternaria tenuissima
                                              Alternaria sp
                                              ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                              Alternaria blight                                                                                             


                                              Causal Organism
 
                                              Alternaria sp,
                                              Alternaria tenuissima,
                                              Alternaria alternata

                                              Damage
                                              These cause blighting of leaves                                                   and severe defoliation and drying                                               of infected branches.
                                             
                                              Brown spots on the leaves with                                                   concentric rings.

                                              The lesions appear on all aerial                                                   plant parts including pods.

                                              Defoliation of leaves and death of                                               tender branches.

                                              Survival & Favourable Conditions

                                              The fungus sporulates well under warm, humid conditions.
                                              Late sown crop or post rainy season favours disease development.

                                              Cultural Control
                                              Use resistant varieties.
                                              Avoid fields close to perennial pigeon pea.
                                              Select seed from healthy plant
                                              Sow early

                                              Chemical Control
                                              Spray macozeb @ 3g/litre of water.                                                             
                                              -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Anthracnose                           Colletotrichum cajani
                                              Colletotrichum truncatum

Armillaria root rot                   Armillaria mellea

Botryodiplodia blight               Lasiodiplodia theobromae
                                               = Botryodiplodia theobromae

Botryosphaeria stem canker     Botryosphaeria xanthocephala
                                               Fusicoccum cajani [anamorph]

Botrytis gray mold                   Botrytis cinerea
                                               Botrytis gray mold
                                               ---------------------------------------------------------------------------  
                                               Botrytis gray mold                                                                                                                                          Causal Organism
                                               Botrytis cinerea
infected flowers
                                             
                                               Damage
                                               Dark gray fungal growth on the growing tips, flowers and pods.
                                               Infected flowers drop, thus reducing pod set.

                                               Survival & Favourable Conditions
                                               The shed flowers and leaves on the ground are covered with sporulating                                                                                                                                   mycelium of the fungus.
                                               It survives on infected debris and is better at 10o C.
                                               It survives and remain ineffective up to 8 months in soil.
 
                                               Cultural Control
                                               Deep summer ploughing.
                                               Reduce plant density and increase in air passage between the plants.
 
                                               Biological Control
                                               Use Trichoderma spp. as bio-control agents.

                                               Chemical Control
                                               Spray mancozeb @ 3g/litre of water.                                                         
                                               ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cercoseptoria leaf spot           Cercoseptoria cajanicola

Cercospora leaf spot               Mycovellosiella cajani

                                               = Cercospora cajani
                                               Cercospora indica
                                               Cercospora instabilis
                                               Cercospora thirumalacharii
                                               -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                               Cercospora leaf spot                                                                                   

                                               Causal Organism
                                               Cercospora cajani, Cercospora indica

                                               Damage 
                                             
                                               Necrotic spots on all aerial parts mainly on leaves and leaf spot stems.
                                               The circular spots on leaves coalesce when the weather is cool and humid                                                                                                                           leading to severe defoliation.
                                               Severe infection leads to the die back of the tender branches o the plant.
                                       
                                               Survival & Favourable Conditions
                                               Cool temp and humid weather favour the disease
                                 
                                               Cultural Control
                                     
                                               Use resistant varieties.
                                               Select field away from perennial pigeon peas which are a source of inoculum.
                                               Always select seeds from healthy plants.
                                   
                                               Chemical Control
                                               Spray maneb @ 3g/litre of water or carbendazim 1 g/litre.                              
                                               ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cladosporium leaf blight           Cladosporium oxysporum

Cladosporium leaf spot             Cladosporium cladosporioides

Collar rot                                 Sclerotium rolfsii

                                               Athelia rolfsii [teleomorph]
                                               = Corticium rolfsii
                                               Collar rot                                                                                                      
                                              
                                               Causal Organism
                                               Sclerotium rolfsii Saccardo

                                               Damage 


                                                Usually appears within a month of sowing scattered over the field.
                                                Seedlings turn slightly chlorotic before they die.
                                                Rotting in the collar region covered with white mycelial growth; this                                                                 differentiates collar rot from other seedling diseases caused by Fusarium,                                                         Rhizoctonia, or Pythium.
                                                Affected seedlings can be easily uprooted, but the lower part of the root                                                         usually remains in soil.

                                                Survival & Favourable Conditions
                                                Temperatures of about 30o C and soil moisture at sowing predispose                                                             seedlings to infection.
                                                This is severe in early-sown (june) than in later- sown crops.
                                                The pathogen finds an excellent substrate in un decomposed stubble.

                                                Cultural Control
                                                Deep summer ploughing
                                                Select well drained fields
                                                Keep the fields free from un decomposed organic matter.
                                                Sow when soil moisture is low.
                                                Select fields where cereal crops have not been grown during the
                                                previous season.

                                                Mechanical Control
                                                Collect cereal stubbles from the field and destroy them before sowing pigeon                                                  pea

                                                Chemical Control
                                                Seed treatment with Thiram or captan @ 3 g/kg                                    
                                                OR                                                                                                               
                                                Thiram + Carbendazim (2:1) 0.25 %                                                         

                                                -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Colletotrichum stem canker      Colletotrichum crassipes

Damping-off                             Pythium aphanidermatum
                                                Pythium splendens var. hawaiianum

Dieback and stem canker          Colletotrichum capsici

Diplodia stem canker                Diplodia cajani

Dry root rot                              Macrophomina phaseolina
                                                = Rhizoctonia bataticola

Fusarium leaf blight                   Fusarium pallidoroseum
                                                = Fusarium semitectum

Fusarium seedling rot                Fusarium avenaceum
                                                Fusarium equiseti

Fusarium wilt                            Fusarium udum
                                                Gibberella indica [teleomorph]
                                                Fusarium Wilt                                                                                               
                                                Causal Organism
                                                Fusarium udum
                                                Damage 


                                              Yellowing of the leaves followed by partial or complete premature death of the                                                plant.
                                               Dark brown to purple band on the main and lateral branches extending                                                          upwards from ground black streaks under the bark.
                                               Dark brown to black discoloration of the xylem in the stem and root regions.

                                               Survival & Favourable Conditions
                                               The fungus survive on infected plant debris in the soil for about 3 years.
                                               Early sowing, good weed management and good crop growth encourage wilt                                                  development.
                                               Low soil temperature and increasing plant maturity favoured wilt

                                               Cultural Control
                                               Use resistant varieties.
                                               Select a field with no previous record of wilt for at least past 3 years.
                                               Do summer ploughing.
                                               Select seed from disease free fields.
                                               Grow pigeon pea intercropped or mixed with cereal crops like sorghum.
                                               Rotate pigeon pea with sorghum, tobacco or castor every three years.
                                               Uproot the wilted plant and use them as firewood or destroy them.
                                               Solarize the field in summer to help reduce the inoculum.v
Biological Control
Soil application of 5kg of Trichoderma formulation/ha mixed with FYM can also be used to combat the disease.
Seed treatment with 4g Trichoderma viridae formulation + 2 g of vitavax/kg of seed
Mechanical Control
Soil application of 5kg of Trichoderma formulation/ha mixed with FYM can also be used to combat the disease.
Seed treatment with 4g Trichoderma viridae formulation + 2 g of vitavax/kg of seed
Chemical Control
Seed dressing with carbendazim 50% + thiram 50% @ 3 g/kg of seed.
OR
Seed treatment with carboxin + thiram (1:2) at the rate of 3g/kg of seed.

Macrophomina stem canker      Macrophomina phaseolina
                                                =Rhizoctonia bataticola

Myrothecium leaf spot              Myrothecium gramineum
                                                Myrothecium roridum

Neocosmospora root rot          Neocosmospora vasinfecta

Periconia leaf spot                    Periconia byssoides

Phaeoisariopsis leaf spot           Phaeoisariopsis griseola

Phoma stem canker                  Phoma cajani

Phyllosticta leaf spot                 Phyllosticta cajani

Phytophthora blight                  Phytophthora drechsleri f.sp. cajani

Phytophthora root rot and
                       stem blight        Phytophthora drechsleri

Phytophthora Stem Canker      Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica
                                                = Phytophthora parasitica

Powdery mildew                      Leveillula taurica
                                               Oidiopsis taurica [anamorph]
                                               Ovulariopsis ellipsospora

Rust                                         Uredo cajani
                                                -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                Rust                                                                                                           
                                                  
                                               Causal Organism
                                               Uredo cajani

                                               Damage 
                                               Dark brown raised pustules full of uredia on the lower leaf surfaces.
                                               The infected leaves desiccate, and drop off.
                                               Extensive defoliation when infections are severe.

                                               Survival & Favourable Conditions
                                               Dense planting, light rain, wind and cloudiness encourage disease                                                                    development.

                                               Disease severity increases with the onset of flowering.

                                               Cultural Control
                                               Use resistant varieties
                                               Avoid sowing pigeon pea close to bean fields.
                                               Rotate crops to reduce the chance of pathogen survival.

                                               Chemical Control
                                               Spray maneb @ 3g/litre of water.                                                               
                                               -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sclerotinia stem rot                   Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

Seedling or seed rot                  Aspergillus flavus
                                                Aspergillus niger

Synchytrium brown gall
                        and wilt            Synchytrium phaseoli-radiati

Synchytrium orange gall            Synchytrium umbilicatum

Web blight                               Thanatephorus cucumeris
                                                Rhizoctonia solani [anamorph]

Wet leaf rot                              Choanephora cucurbitarum

Wet root rot                             Rhizoctonia solani
                                                Thanatephorus cucumeris [teleomorph]



Nematodes, parasitic

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

Dirty root (reniform nematode)     Rotylenchulus reniformis

Lance nematode                          Aphasmatylenchus
                                                   Hoplolaimus seinhorsti

Pearly root (cyst nematode)         Heterodera cajani

Root-knot (root-knot nematode) Meloidogyne acronea
                                                   Meloidogyne arenaria
                                                   Meloidogyne incognita
                                                   Meloidogyne javanica

Viral diseases
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
Arhar mosaic                              Arhar mosaic virus

Foliar vein yellowing                    Rhabdovirus

Mild mosaic                                Tobacco mosaic virus

Mosaic                                       Alfalfa mosaic virus
                                                  Cowpea mosaic virus

Phyllody                                     Mycoplasma-like organism

Rhynchosia little leaf                    Mycoplasma-like organism

Rhynchosia Mosaic                     Rosette
                                                  Mycoplasma-like organism
                                                  Virus (most likely)

Sterility mosaic                           Unknown
                                                  Sterility mosaic                                                                                            
                                                  Causal Organism
                                                  Eriophyid mite Aceria cajani


                                                  Damage 


                                                  Bushy and stunted appearance of the infected plants due to reduction in the                                                     size of the leaves and proliferation of the branches.

                                                  Light and dark green mosaic pattern on the infected leaves of younger                                                             plants.

                                                  Partial or complete sterility of the plant resulting in low or no flowering and                                                     podding.
 

                                                  Survival & Favourable Conditions
                                                  Shade and humidity encourage multiplication of the virus.

                                                  Cultural Control
                                         
                                                  Use resistant varieties.
                                                  The crop must be sown timely.
                                                  The spacing between the lines should be maintained at 30 to 40 cms.
                                                  Only certified seeds should be used for sowing.
                                                   If the seeds are not treated then seed treatment should be done.
                                                   In endemic areas only tolerant and resistant varieties should be used.
                                                   Weeds plants should be rouged out at their inception.
                                                   Insect, fungal and nematode vectors should be controlled using suitable                                                          pesticides.
                                                   Control white fly as it spreads the virus.

                                                   Mechanical Control
                                                   Destroy sources of sterility mosaic inoculum
                                                   Uproot infected plants at an early stage of disease development and destroy                                                    them

                                                   Chemical Control
                                                   Seed dressing with 25% furadan 3G.                                                      
                                                   OR                                                                                                        
                                                   10 % aldicarb @ 3g/kg of seed.                                                              
                                                   OR                                                                                                        
                                                   Spraying acaricide or insecticide like metasystox or kelthane @ 0.1% to                                                        control the mite vector in the early stages of plant growth.                          


Witches' broom                          Mycoplasma-like organism

Yellow mosaic                            Mung bean yellow mosaic virus
                                                 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                  Yellow mosaic                                                                                         
                                                 
                                                   

                                                  Causal Organism
                                                  Mung bean yellow mosaic virus

                                                  Damage 
                                                  Green and mosaic mottle symptoms are seen on the leaves.
                                                  Diseased plants are scattered in the field and produce fewer pods.

                                                  Cultural Control
                                                  Avoid sowing late to reduce disease severity.
                                                  Uproot and burn infected plants if the disease appears on isolated plants in                                                     the field.

                                                  Chemical Control
                                                  Spray insecticide (metasystox @ 1 g/L to control the white fly             
                                                  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
Miscellaneous diseases and disorders
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Marginal leaf burn

Salinity injury (most likely)

Insect Management

Red gram crop is attacked by a number of insect pests like pod borers, tur pod fly, plume moth, hairy caterpillar, leaf hopper, bean fly etc. but the pod borers are found to cause a considerable loss to the crop.


1. Gram caterpillar Helicoverpa armigera
Major pest on red gram in all areas and highly polyphagous in nature. Fully grown caterpillar is greenish with dark brown lines on the sides of the body.
The adult moth is medium in size, stout and grey to pale brown in colour. Dark spots are seen in the forewings.

Presence of bore holes on the pods, flowers and defoliation in the early stages are the main symptoms.
The young larva is green in colour. It feeds on tender leaves by scraping green tissue and the older larvae feed on buds, flowers and pods in a characteristic manner with its head and part of the body inside and remaining part outside the pods.

The larva after feeding on the developing or partly matured seeds moves to another one, leaving behind large round holes on each of the damaged locule.

Control:

Deep summer ploughing and removal of weeds
Sow resistant varieties
Synchronized sowing of red gram by the end of June preferably with short duration varieties in each cotton ecosystem.

Avoid Monocropping. Intercropping of early maturing pigeon pea with mung bean in alternate and paired row results in low infestation of pod borer.
Removal and destruction of crop residues to avoid carry over of the pest to the next season, and avoiding extended period of crop growth by continuous irrigation.

The population of pod borer can be regulated by using pheromone traps. In cases of heavy infestation, physical shaking of pigeon pea plants to dislodge larvae is favored.
Bird perches placed just above the crop canopy will also help to reduce the population of the pest.

Biological control:

Application of Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (NPV) @ 500 LE /ha with 10% cotton seed kernel extract, 10% crude sugar, 0.1% each of Tinopal and Teepol for effective control of Helicoverpa.
Applying HNPV at a rate of 500 larval equivalents (LE) per ha. At 15 days intervals.
Conservation and augmentation of natural predators and parasitoids for effective control of the pest.

Chemical control:

Any systemic insecticide should be used at 50 % flowering stage and after 10 - 15 days neem seed kernal extract should be used.

Spraying of 0.07 % Endosulfan (2ml of 35 EC / liter of water) or 0.04 % Monocrotophos (1 ml of 40 EC / liter of water) Fenvalerate or Cypermethrin will control the pest.

2. Plume moth Exelastis atomosa

A major pest noticed during November to March.
Adult is small moth with yellowish brown wings, forewings are cut into two plumes and hind wings into three.
The green oval eggs are laid singly on buds and pods.

Larvae are green or brown, spindle shaped and covered with spines and hair.
On the dorsum two thin yellow lines run along the body.

Pupae which are brownish, look like the larvae and are attached to the pod surface.
Caterpillars are more rampant during the post rainy season than during the rainy season.

The larvae bore into the flowers and pods and feed on developing grains. Control
Field sanitation by removing and destroying the damage plant parts and timely sowing of the crop.

Avoid Monocropping and adoption of mixed or intercropping with non host plants.
Crop rotation with non leguminous crop.

Spraying of NPV 625 LE/ha with adjuvants like Tinopol 0.1% + Jaggery 0.5%
Spraying of the suitable insecticides should be done at 50% flowering stage to protect the crop from the moth and larva.

Spray Endosulphan 35 EC at the rate of 2 l/ha. / Monocrotophos 36 SL at the rate of 1l/ha.


3. Green pod borer Etiella zinckenella

This pest is widely distributed and infestations of this pest build up by the end of the red gram season, when the temperatures are high.

Medium sized brown moths.
Elliptical eggs are laid in clusters on the developing pods.

The young larvae are green and later turn pinkish- red.
Larvae feed on the maturing seeds inside the pod, reaching a maximum length of 15 mm.

The larva feeds on maturing seeds after entering the pods.
Faucal pellets are seen inside the damaged pods.

Pupation takes place in the soil.

Control

Apply chemical insecticide only if the pest population crosses ETL.

Spraying of endosulfan 35 EC 0.07% (2ml of 35 EC/lit. of water) or monocrotophos 36SL 0.04% (1 ml of 36 SL /litre of water) or chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 3.5 ml/lit. of water at 600-1000 lit. of spray material per ha. with hand sprayer.

4. Spotted pod borer Maruca testulalis

Major pest of red gram and other grain legume crops.
The forewings of the moth are brown in colour with white club shaped marking and hind wings are white with irregular blotch.

The eggs are oval and yellow laid in small batches commonly on terminals.
The larva is whitish-green with conspicuous black spots on its dorsal surface.

Pupation is in a silken cocoon in leaf webbings or on soil surface.
The larva webs together the leaves, buds and pods and feeds inside these webs.

The caterpillar also bores into pods and eats up the ripening seeds.
A crown mass of excrement is seen at the entrance into the larval burrow.

Control

Timely sowing should be done preferably up to first quarter of July.
Excess application of nitrogen should be avoided.

Water logging should be prevented.
Conserve ants and praying mantids as these are good predators of egg and larva of the pest.

If the pest population crosses ETL spray 0.07% endosulfan ( 2ml of 35 EC/lit. of water) or 0.04% monocrotophos ( 1 ml of 36 Sl /litre of water) or chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 3.5 ml/lit. of water at 600-1000 lit. of spray material per ha. with hand sprayer.


5. Blue butterflies Lampides boeticus, Catochrysops strabo

Widely distributed and attack several cultivated and wild legumes.
Small blue butterflies with a black spot on the hind wing, and ashort hair like projection.

Single sculptured pale blue eggs are laid on buds.
Larvae are about 12 mm long, green, oval, flat, and slug-like

Pupation occurs in the soil or in plant debris.
The larvae feed on leaves, buds, flowers, and pods

Control

Natural enemies reduce the numbers.
Specific control is rarely required, but the general management recommendations for pod borers may be adopted.

6. Pod fly Melanagromyza obtusa

Commonly found major pest of red gram in India.
Adult is small black fly, insert eggs through the wall of the developing pod close to the grains.

Brown puparium is inside the pod but outside the seed.
Completes its life cycle in 3 weeks.

Maggot is milky white, legless and about 3 mm in size.
Five brownish strips runs along the entire mid dorsal line of the body.

The maggot feeds on the developing grain.
The infested pods do not show external evidence of damage until the fully grown larvae chew holes in the pod walls.

These bore the grains and make the tunnel in them.
This hole provides an emergence window through which the adults exit the pod.

Damaged grains do not mature and due to excreta fungus may develop in the grain.
The infested grains loose their viability.

Control

Sow resistant varieties.
Crop rotation with non leguminous crops.
Intercropping with jowar, maize or groundnut etc.
Conserve the parasite Ormyrus Sp.

Spary monocrotophos @ 36 SL @ 1 ml/lit or endosulfan 35 EC 2.0 ml/lit of water at 50 % flowering stage and after 10 - 15 days neem seed kernal extract should be used.

7. Pod wasp Taraostigmoides Sp.

Adult is a small yellowish brown wasp of 2 mm long.
Lays translucent flat, oval eggs are laid on the flowers and on the young pods.

Legless white larva of 2.5 mm long feeds on the young green seed of basal locules of pods causing complete abortion of seed resulting in single seeded pods.

Larva also feeds on the pod wall after consuming the seed.
When the pod is attacked immediately after fertilization, it dries and is shed.

Control

In India it is not causing any appreciable harm to warrant any control.
Insecticides used for the pod borers can control this pest.

In India it is not causing any appreciable harm to warrant any control.
Insecticides used for the pod borers can control this pest.

8. Blister beetle Mylabris pustulata

Blister beetles are polyphagous and found attracted to yellow and pink flowers.
Peak activity is usually from August-October.

Elytra are black in colour with a round orange spot and two wavy orange bands across the wings.
Eggs are usually laid in the soil and larvae feed upon soil insects, including major pests or on egg pods of various grasshoppers found in soil.

Adult beetles feed on flowers and tender pods, and may have a significant impact on yields, especially of short-duration genotypes.

Control

Adults can not be killed easily with the insecticides but synthetic pyrethroids work well.
Manual collection by hand picking or with an insect net and killing of adults in kerosenized water is the only possible solution, when population is alarmingly large.

9. Pod sucking bugs Anoplocnemis sp., Clavigralla Sp.

Adults of Anoplocnemis are brown or black, large in size with rounded shoulders.
Clavigralla are brownish grey with spine like projectious on shoulders.

Eggs are chocolate brown, bead like, laid in rows on leaves or pods.
Nymphs are shiny brown seen on developing pods.

Both nymphs and adults suck on developing seeds through pod wall.
The seeds become shriveled with dark parches and lose germination.

Control

Spraying of 700 ml trizophos 40 EC. Or Spray endosulfan 35 EC @ 2 ml/lit of water.
The above spray should be done by hollow cone nozzle and in 600 - 700 litre water/ha. 10.


Jassids Empoasca kerri
Adults are small green insects.
Nymphs are yellowish – green and almost translucent.
Eggs are inserted into the midrib.

Both nymphs and adults suck sap from under surface of the leaflets.
In heavy infestation, leaflets become cup-shaped and have yellow edges and tips.
Continued infestation result in leaflets turning red-brown followed by defoliation and reduced yield.

Control

Conserve predators like lady beetles, ants, chrysopa cymbela etc.
Conserve egg parasites like gonatocerus spp and oligosita sp.

In case of heavy infestation a single application of dimethoate can adequately reduce the population.

11.Aphids Aphis craccivora

Occurrence of aphids is seen in cooler months, after the cessation of rains and attacks a large number of leguminous crops.

The adults are black and shiny, about 2 mm long.
Both winged and wingless forms occur.

The nymphs are smaller, grey and dull due to waxy covering of body.
Females may lay the young ones which become adult in about a week due to which the population multiplies very fast.

Nymphs and adults colonize on young stem, leaves, flowers and pods.
Both adult and nymph suck the sap from young stem, leaves, flowers and pods and excrete honey dew.

Under heavy infestation, young leaves of seedlings become twisted; retard the pod development and grain formation.

Seedlings may wilt, particularly under moisture-stressed conditions.

Control

Heavy rains and coccinellid predators often discourage population build up in proportions which can cause economic damage.

If needed, spray of methyl dematon 25 EC at the rate of 300 ml/ha, the above spray should be done in 300 litre water/ha. or Spray phosphomidon 250 l/ha, the above spray should be done in 650 - 700 litre water/ha.

12. Cow bugs Otinotus oneratus , Oxyrachis tarandus
 
Adults are grey brown and have horn-like projections on the thorax.
Nymphs are lighter in colour
Eggs are laid in clusters of 15-20 on stems.

A close observation shows corky tissues and eggs in groups arranged roughly in the form of ‘V’.
Both nymphs and adults feed on tender shoots.

Cow bugs excrete honeydew, a sugary substance that attracts ants.
The ants may protect the bugs from natural enemies, which would otherwise keep cow bug populations in check.

Heavy infestation results in formation of corky tissues and reduced plant vigour.

Control
 
Because cow bug attacks are sporadic and do not generally cause any economic damage, no specific management strategies are suggested.

However, in situations contrary to this any systemic insecticide like dimethoate, methyl demeton or phosphamidon may be used.

13. Leaf webber Grapholita (Eucosma) critica

This is mainly a pest of redgram from seedling stage to reproductive stage.
Moth is small and dark brown.

Eggs are normally laid in clusters of about ten, on buds and young leaves.
Larva is cream-yellow in colour.

Pupation is in leaf web.
Larvae produce silk and use it to fold terminal leaves and web these together feed from inside the web of leaflets, flowers, and pods.

When infestation includes the terminal bud, further growth of that shoot may be severely impaired.
Infestations may begin as early as the seedling stage and continue through to the flowering and pod formation stages.

Control

Since the injury caused by the pest is of minor nature, use of chemicals is not warranted.
Removal and destruction of the spun leaves and the contained pest stages, and spraying with monocrotophos in case of high incidence is recommended.

14. Scale Ceroplastodes cajani

Distributed throughout India and mostly in South India.
Adult females are oval shaped, sedentary and remain attached to the stem and branches.

The scale insects are protected by waxy coating.

The first instar nymphs are active and after finding a suitable place on the host lose the appendages and there
after remain attached to the stem and branches.

Nymphs and adults suck sap and reduce vigour.
Severe infestation leads to dropping of leaves.

Control

The pest is usually not in a serious form, but if required any of the systemic insecticides can be used.

Integrated Pest Management in Red gram

Monitoring of pest incidence by community field scouting at periodic intervals should be undertaken to workout ETL.

Erecting light traps should be undertaken in the field.
Install pheromone traps at a distance of 50 m @ 5 traps/ha.

Use Helicoverpa lure and change it after every 20 days. Trapped insects should be removed and destroyed on daily basis.

Conservation of predatory spiders and wasps etc.

Installation of bird perches for the predatory birds.
Synchronize sowing with a single variety in a village/area.

Growing resistant / tolerant varieties.
Inter crop with Jowar for reducing Helicoverpa, wilt and nematode incidence.

Early planting ie in mid-June to avoid peak infestation period of H. armigera on short duration pigeon pea.
Planting of castor or tall sorghum / maize varieties on borders for conserving natural enemies. These plants also function as live perches for predatory birds.

Plant short stature pulse crops like cowpea, mungbean, urdbean, fodder soybean etc. in 1 m wide band after 8-10 rows of pigeon pea.

Growing trap crop like marigold on the borders and in between rows as inter crop as their flowers shall attract oviposition which can then be plucked and disposed.

Treatment of the seed with Trichoderma viride @ 4 grams/kg seed.
Seed treatment with carbendazim + thiram ( 1 gm + 2 gm/kg seed, or carbendazim (2 gm/kg seed) or thiram (3 gm/kg seed).

Application of NPV @ 250 LE per ha. on noticing eggs and 1st instars larvae (2-3 eggs or 1 larva per twigs). Spray of NSKE 5% at pre-flowering stage 3 times at 15 days interval.

Spraying of 0.07% endsulfan (2m1 of35 EC/lit of water) or 0.04% monocrotophos (1 ml of 36 SL/litre of water) or chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 3.5 ml./1it. of water at 600-1000 lit of spray material per ha. with hand sprayer or 200-300 lit./ha with power sprayer.


Disease Management

The crop mostly suffers from wilt, stem rot and sterility mosaic diseases.

1. Wilt Fusarium udum

Wilt is the most destructive fungal disease of red gram. In Andhra Pradesh, it is prevalent in Telangana districts and Kurnool.

Red gram is susceptible to wilt pathogen throughout its development. But damage is greater during flowering and podding stage.

Yellowing of the leaves followed by partial or complete premature death of the plant is the main symptom.
Dark brown to purple band on the main and lateral branches extending upwards from ground black streaks under the bark.

Dark brown to black discoloration of the xylem in the stem and root regions.
The fungus survives on infected plant debris in the soil for about 3 years.
Growing resistant varieties like Maruti, Lakshmi, Durga, PRG-100, Mukta, Prabhat and Sharda can tolerate this disease.
Crop rotation of pigeon pea with sorghum, tobacco or castor every three years.
Intercropping or mixed cropping with sorghum.
Solarization of the field in summer to reduce the inoculums of the pathogen.

Soil application of 5kg of Trichoderma formulation/ha mixed with FYM can also be used to combat the disease.

Seed treatment with 4g Trichoderma viridae formulation + 2 g of vitavax or 3 gm thiram /kg of seed.
Seed dressing with carbendazim 50% + thiram 50% @ 3 g/kg of seed. or Seed treatment with carboxin + thiram (1:2) at the rate of 3g/kg of seed.


2. Phytopthora blight Phytopthora drechsleri

This is a devastating disease that kills young plants (1-7 week old) leaving large gaps in plant stand.
It causes seedlings to die suddenly as in damping off disease.
In infected plants water soaked, irregular lesions on the leaves often causing blighting of the leaf/leaflets and younger plant.

Infected leaves lose turgidity and become desiccated.
Brown sunken lesions on the stem and branches causing girdling and makes the infected stem weak and leads to breakage and drying of the plant/branches.
Root system is not affected.

Yield losses are usually higher in short duration types than in medium and long duration types.
The fungus survives as dormant mycelium in soil and in infected plant debris.
Cloudy weather and drizzling rain with temp 25 °C favor infection.
Low -lying areas where water stagnates, close spacing encourage blight build up.
Warm and humid weather following infection result in rapid disease development.

Control

Using resistant varieties like BDN1, ICPL 150, ICPL 288, ICPL 304 and KPBR 80-1-4
Seed treatment with 4 g Trichoderma viride formulation + 6 g metalaxyl (Apron) per kg of seed followed by spraying metalaxyl (Ridomil MZ) @ 2g / l help in reducing the disease incidence.
Avoid sowing red gram in fields with low lying patches that are prone to water logging.

3. Dry Root Rot Rhizoctonia bataticola, Macrophomina phaseolina
 
Dry root rot is a serious problem in late-sown or summer crops, and in perennial or ratooned pigeonpea.
In Andhra Pradesh, it is severe on red gram grown in Khammam, Krishna and Guntur districts.
Crop is more susceptible in the reproductive stage.
Infected plants suddenly and prematurely dry up. When such plants are uprooted their roots are rotten and shredded.

The finer roots are mainly affected and have dark, blackened streaks underneath their bark with evident dark sclerotial bodies. Such roots are brittle and break when touched.
Early symptoms are spindle-shaped lesions on stems and branches.
Hot (above 30°C) and dry weather encourages disease development.
Rain after prolonged dry spell pre-disposes the plant to the disease.
Symptoms usually appear at flowering and podding stages.
More severe on black soils than on red soils.

Control

LRG 66, ICPL 86005, ICPL 86020, ICPL 87105 and ICPL 91028 can tolerate this disease.
Seed treatment with 4 g Trichoderma viride formulation + 3 g Thiram per kg seed and application of 2 kg T. viride formulation mixed with 50 kg FYM per acre help in reducing the disese incidence.
Avoid water stress at flowering and podding.

4. Powdery Mildew Oidiopsis taurica , Leveillula taurica

White powdery fungal growth appears on the flowers and pods.
The initial symptoms develop as small chlorotic spots on the upper surface of individual leaves.
Subsequently the corresponding lower surfaces develop white powdery patches.
When the fungus sporulates, white powdery growth covers the entire lower leaf surface.
Severe infection leads to defoliation.
The disease cause stunting of young plants.
Cool, humid climate is congenial fungal infection.

Control

Spraying wettable sulphur @ 1g/litre. OR Triadimefon 25 @ 0.03% OR Carbendazim 0.5 g-1.0 g/lit effectively controls the disease.


5. Cercospora leaf spot Cercospora cajani, Cercospora indica

It is a problem in humid regions.
Small circular to irregular necrotic spots or lesions on older leaves coalesce when the weather is cool and humid leading to severe defoliation.
During epidemic lesions appear on young branches and their tips dry and die back.

Control

Spray Mancozeb @ 3g/litre of water or carbendazim 1 g/litre.


6.Alternaria leaf blight Alternaria tenuissima, Alternaria alternata

Symptoms develop as small, circular, necrotic spots on the leaves, and these spots gradually increase in size to characteristic lesions with dark and light brown concentric rings with a wary outline and purple margin.
The lesions appear on all aerial plant parts including pods causing blighting of leaves and severe defoliation and drying of infected branches.
The fungus sporulates well under warm, humid conditions.

Control
Resistant cultivars such as ICPL 366 and DA 2 are recommended.
Spraying Mancozeb @ 3g/litre of water reduces disease spread.


7. Rust Uredo cajani

Rust symptoms appear as dark brown raised pustules full of uredia on the lower leaf surfaces.
The infected leaves desiccate, and drop off.
Extensive defoliation when infections are severe.
Disease severity increases with the onset of flowering.

Dense planting, light rain, wind and cloudiness encourage disease development.
Light rain, wind and cloudiness encourage spore release, dispersal and disease development.

Control

Avoid sowing pigeon pea close to bean fields.
Crop rotation reduces the chance of pathogen survival.
Spraying Mancozeb @ 3g/litre of water reduces disease spread.


8. Botrytis gray mold Botrytis cinerea

Disease usually appears when plants are in flowering stage.
Dark gray fungal growth on the growing tips, flowers and pods.
Infected flowers drop, thus reducing pod set.
The shed flowers and leaves on the ground are covered with sporulating mycelium of the fungus.
It survives on infected debris and is better at 10°C.
It survives and remains ineffective up to 8 months in soil.

Control

Spraying chlorothalonil 3g/litre of water reduces disease spread.


9. Bacterial leaf spot and stem canker Xanthomonas campestris pv. cajani

It appears in rainy season during July and August.
Small necrotic spots on leaves surrounded by bright yellow hallow appear on the lower leaves of about 1 month old plants.
Later rough, raised cankerous lesions on stem resulting in their breakage.
Defoliation of lower leaves in severe case of infection.
In severe infestation, the affected branches dry.
Warm (25 – 30°C) and humid weather favour disease development.
Disease incidence is generally higher in low lying water logged areas of the field than in well drained areas.


Control

Spraying antibiotics like streptocycline 100 ppm @. 2.5 g/10 lit of water at 10 days intervals effectively controls the disease.


10. Sterility mosaic Sterility mosaic virus

Sterility mosaic is a serious problem in India which is transmitted by eriophid mite.
In the field, the disease can be easily identified from a distance as patches of bushy and stunted pale green plants without flowers or pods.

Mosaic pattern initially appear as vein clearing on the infected leaves of younger plants.
A single eriophid mite vector is sufficient to transmit the disease.
Perennial and volunteer pigeon peas and the rationed growths of harvested plants provide reservoirs of the mite vector and the pathogen.

Shade and humidity encourage multiplication of the virus.
ICPL 87119, ICPL 227, Jagruti and Bahar can tolerate the disease.

Spraying acaricide like dicofol 3ml / metasystox or kelthane @ 0.1% or sulphur 3 g in one litre of water to control mite vector in the early stages of plant growth is helpful.