Thursday, October 27, 2011

Massor Dal Cultivation














Masoor Dal (Masoor Beans) 

Scientific classification
Kingdom                        : Plantae
(unranked)                      : Angiosperms
(unranked)                      : Eudicots
(unranked)                      : Rosids
Order                             : Fabales
Family                            : Fabaceae
Subfamily                       : Faboideae
Tribe                              : Vicieae
Genus                             : Lens
Species                           : L. culinaris
Binomial name                 : Lens culinaris

The lentil (Lens culinaris)  is an edible pulse. It is a bushy annual plant of the legume family, grown for its lens-shaped seeds. It is about 40 centimetres (16 in) tall and the seeds grow in pods, usually with two seeds in each.

The plant likely originated in India, and lentils have been part of the human diet since the aceramic (pottery

nonproducing) Neolithic times, being one of the first crops domesticated in the Near East. Archeological evidence shows they were eaten 13,000 to 9,500 years ago.

Lentil colors range from yellow to red-orange to green, brown and black. Lentils also vary in size (e.g., Masoor lentils), and are sold in many forms, with or without the skins, whole or split.

Other pulses are sometimes called lentils, but are actually beans or peas, e.g. "black lentils" (urad beans).

Types

Brown/Spanish pardina
French green/puy lentils (dark speckled blue-green)
Green
Black/beluga (not actually true lentils; see urad bean)
Yellow/tan lentils (red inside)
Red Chief (decorticated yellow lentils)
Eston Green (Small green)
Richlea (medium green)
Laird (large green)
Petite Golden (decorticated lentils)
Masoor (brown-skinned lentils which are orange inside)
Petite crimson/red (decorticated masoor lentils)
Macachiados (big Mexican yellow lentils)

The seeds require a cooking time of 10 to 30 minutes, depending on the variety–shorter for small varieties with the husk removed, such as the common red lentil–and have a distinctive, earthy flavor. Lentils are used

throughout South Asia, the Mediterranean regions and West Asia. They are frequently combined with rice, which has a similar cooking time. A lentil and rice dish is referred to in west Asia as mujaddara or mejadra. Rice and lentils are also cooked together in khichdi, a popular dish in the Indian subcontinent; a similar dish,

kushari, made in Egypt, is considered one of two national dishes. Lentils are used to prepare an inexpensive and nutritious soup all over Europe and North and South America, sometimes combined with some form of chicken or pork.

Dried lentils can also be sprouted by leaving in water for several days, which changes their nutrition profile.

Lentils with husk remain whole with moderate cooking; lentils without husk tend to disintegrate into a thick purée, which leads to quite different dishes.


Nutritional value and health benefits
Lentils, raw (dry weight)Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy                             - 1,477 kJ (353 kcal)
Carbohydrates                 - 60 g
- Sugars                           -   2 g
- Dietary fiber                  -  31 g
Fat                                  -    1 g
Protein                            -  26 g
Thiamine (vit. B1)            -     0.87 mg (76%)
Folate (vit. B9)                -  479 μg (120%)
Iron                                 -  7.5 mg (58%)

With about 30% of their calories from protein, lentils, like other legumes, have the third-highest level of protein, by weight, of any plant-based food, after soybeans and hemp. Proteins include the essential amino acids isoleucine and lysine, and are an essential source of inexpensive protein in many parts of the world,

especially in the West Asia and the Indian subcontinent, which have large vegetarian populations. Lentils are deficient in two essential amino acids, methionine and cysteine. However, sprouted lentils contain sufficient levels of all essential amino acids, including methionine and cysteine.

Lentils also contain dietary fiber, folate, vitamin B1, and minerals. Red (or pink) lentils contain a lower concentration of fiber than green lentils (11% rather than 31%). Health magazine has selected lentils as one of the five healthiest foods. Lentils are often mixed with grains, such as rice, which results in a complete protein dish.

Lentils also have antinutritional factors, such as trypsin inhibitors and relatively high phytate content. Trypsin is an enzyme involved in digestion, and phytates reduce the bioavailability of dietary minerals. The phytates can be reduced by soaking the lentils in warm water overnight.

Lentils are a good source of iron.

Production
entils are relatively tolerant to drought, and are grown throughout the world. FAO reported the world production of lentils for calendar year 2009 was 3.917 million metric tonnes, primarily coming from Canada, India, Turkey and United States.

About a quarter of the worldwide production of lentils is from India, most of which is consumed in the domestic market. Canada is the largest export producer of lentils in the world, and Saskatchewan is the most

important producing region in Canada. Statistics Canada estimates that Canadian lentil production for the 2009/10 year is a record 1.5 million metric tonnes.

The Palouse Region of Eastern Washington and the Idaho Panhandle, with its commercial center at Pullman, WA, constitutes the most important lentil-producing region in the United States. Montana and North Dakota are also significant lentil growers.

National Agricultural Statistics Service reports United States 2007 production at 154.5 thousand metric tonnes.
Top ten lentil producers – 2009
Country                     Production (tonnes)

 Canada                 1,510,200
 India                        950,000
 Turkey                     302,181
 United States           265,760
 Australia                  143,000
 Ethiopia                   123,777
 China                      120,000
 Syria                       102,461
 Iran                           83,985
 Bangladesh                60,537
 World                  3,917,923

In culture

Lentils are mentioned many times in the Old Testament, the first time recounting the incident in which Jacob purchases the birthright from Esau with stewed lentils (a "mess of pottage"). In Jewish mourning tradition, they are considered as food for mourners, together with boiled eggs, because their round shape symbolizes the life cycle from birth to death.

Lentils were the main ingredient in the diet of ancient Iranians, who consumed lentils daily in the form of a stew poured over rice.

Lentils are also commonly used in Ethiopia in a stew-like dish called kik, or kik wot, one of the dishes people eat with Ethiopia's national food, injera flat bread. Yellow lentils are used to make a nonspicy stew, which is one of the first solid foods Ethiopian women feed their babies.

In Shia narrations, lentils are said to be blessed by seventy Prophets including Jesus and Mohammed.

In Italy, eating lentils on New Year's Eve traditionally symbolizes the wish to earn more money next year, most likely because of their round coin-like shape.

In "Cinderella", one of Grimm's Fairy Tales, a task her stepmother assigns Cinderella is fishing lentils out of ash. If she succeeds, she may go to the ball
While whole, this bean is greenish-brown, even though they can be prepared whole (masoor beans) Indian recipes often call for the skinned and split masoor, which is called masoor dal. Skinned split Masoor beans are actually called red lentils (orange in color).


They have a dark, earthy flavor and a creamy texture. These lentils pair well with tomatoes and kheema/mince meats, sausages, and may be served on their own as a side dish, or incorporated into soups, stews, salads and Indian dal.

For more information on other crops please log on to"www.vpkas.nic.in". The Institute has made outstanding contribution to improve the crop production in North-West Himalayas region, by        developing 120 improved varieties of 25 crops.                                                                                      

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