Thursday, October 6, 2011

Snake gourd cultivation

Scientific classification
snake gourd (trichosanthes cucumerina)

Kingdom        : Plantae
(unranked)      : Angiosperms
(unranked)      : Eudicots
(unranked)      : Rosids
Order             : Cucurbitales
Family            : Cucurbitaceae
Genus             : Trichosanthes
Species           : T. cucumerina
Binomial name : Trichosanthes cucumerin 

Trichosanthes cucumerina is a tropical or subtropical vine, raised for its strikingly long fruit, used as a vegetable, medicine, and, a lesser known use, crafting didgeridoos. Common names include snake gourd
snake gourd vines

(var. anguina), serpent gourd, chichinga, and padwal.In India it is known as chichinga or chichinge in Bengali, purla in Sambalpuri language, potlakaaya  in Telugu, pathola in Sinhala, pudalankaai  in Tamil, dhunduli in Assamese, paduvalakaayi in Kannada and padavalanga  in Malayalam.
snake gourd ready for vegetable

The narrow, soft-skinned fruit can reach 150 cm long. Its soft, bland, somewhat mucilaginous flesh is similar

to that of the luffa and the calabash. It is most popular in the cuisine of South Asia and Southeast Asia. The shoots, tendrils, and leaves are also eaten as greens.


The snake gourd (chichinda), also known as Chinese cucumber, occupies an important place among vegetables in India. It is an annual plant and belongs to the gourd family Cucurbitaceae. It is of exceedingly rapid growth and of climbing habit. The tendril is divided into three parts. The leaves are angular and hairy,
snake gourd flower

with 5-7 lobes. They emit foetid odour when damaged. The flowers are white. The fruits are large and greenish white. They often reach upto 150 cm. in length and 8 cm. in thickness. There is also a short-fruited type. Tender fruits are used as vegetables.

The botanical name of the snake gourd is Trichosanthes anguiana. It is believed to have originated in India. It occurs wide from India to Australia. It has also been cultivated for long in this country and the Far East. The plants are commonly grown in South India for their snake-like greyish white spongy fruits. They are also grown in North India but mostly in home gardens.

Nutritine Value

Snake gourd is a very nutritious vegetable.
An analysis of this vegetable shows it to consists of

               moisture 94.6 percent,
               protein 0.5 percent,
               fat 0.3 percent,
               fibre 0.8 percent
 and        carbohydrate 3.3 percent per 100 grams of edible portion.

Its mineral and vitamin contents are
              calcium 26 mg. percent,
              phosphorus 20 mg. percent,
              iron 0.3 mg. percent,
              carotene 96mg. percent,
              thiamin 0.04 percent,
              riboflavin 0.06 mg percent,
              niacin 0.3 mg. percent.

Its calorific value is 18.

Medicinal Uses

Snake gourd is a natural antibiotic, expectorant, and laxative. It can disperse phlegm, remove pus, expel toxic matter and is anti-inflammatory. It creates a cooling effect in the body.

Snake gourd is a tonic for the heart. It is useful in correcting disorders, processes of nutrition and it restores the normal function of the system.

Snake gourd helps stimulate the production of body fluids, relieving dryness. The plant is particularly useful in checking night sweating during the active phase of tuberculosis of the lungs. The leaves of the plant are used in folk medicine all over India.

Fevers

Snake gourd is useful in reducing bilious fever. A decoction of the fruits should be prepared for use in this condition. Its efficacy is increased if it is given with chiretta and honey. In obstinate cases of fevers, a combined infusion of this plant and of coriander will be more beneficial. About 12 grams of each should be infused in water overnight. The strained liquid should be given in two parts the next day.

A decoction of the leaves of the plant, made with the addition of coriander leaves, is also useful in bilious fever. The leaf juice is used to induce vomiting. In remittent fever, the leaf juice is applied as a liniment over the body.

Diabetes


Snake gourd is considered useful in wasting and thirst, which is an ancient reference to diabetes. This has led to investigations of its potential to treat this disease. Modern Chinese treatments for diabetes frequently include Snake gourd root as an ingredient. Even otherwise, being a low-calorie food, this vegetable can be used liberally with advantage by Type-II diabetics to reduce weight and also at the same time get adequate nourishment.

Heart disorders

The juice of the fresh leaves is useful in the disorders of the heart like palpitation and pain in the heart on physical exertion. The juice should be given in doses of one to two tablespoons thrice daily.

Jaundice

An infusion of the leaves is beneficial in the treatment of jaundice. It should be given in 30 to 60 grams doses with coriander seed decoction thrice daily.

Alopecia
 

The juice of the leaves is beneficial in the treatment of alopecia, a disease of the scalp resulting in complete or partial baldness. The juice should be applied externally on the scalp for treating this condition.

s a Purgative

Juice of the snake gourd root is a strong purgative, while an infusion of the dried fruit is a mild one. It also aids digestion. The leaves of the plant are useful as an emetic and purgative in children suffering from constipation. A teaspoon of the fresh juice should be given early in the morning for this purpose. The seeds are especially useful as a moistening agent for treating dry constipation.

Dosage
Snake gourd root, fruit, seeds, and pericarps are normally administered in doses of 9-15 grams in decoction. Snake gourd seeds are sometimes used in higher doses, up to 20 grams, in the treatment of constipation, as their oil lubricates the intestine. When powdered and made into pills, snakegourd is consumed at a dose of 2-3 grams daily.

Uses of Snake Gourd

The tender immature fruits are cooked as vegetables.

Precautions

The seeds of the snakegourd should not be taken in excess of prescribed dosage as their overdose may cause gastric discomfort, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea; due to their high content of oil. The fruits are contraindicated in cold with diarrhea. Snake gourd root should be used cautiously during pregnancy as high doses may have an abortifacient effect.



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