Sunday, November 6, 2011

Rajma(red beans) Cultivation




Rajma (Red Kidney Beans/Phaseolus vulgaris)

Scientific classification

Kingdom                 : Plantae
(unranked)               : Angiosperms
(unranked)               : Eudicots
(unranked)               : Rosids
Order                      : Fabales
Family                     : Fabaceae
Genus                      : Phaseolus
Species                    : P. vulgaris
Binomial name         : Phaseolus vulgaris

The kidney bean with its dark red skin is named for its visual resemblance to a kidney. The kidney bean is

also known as the red bean, although this usage can cause confusion with other red beans. Red kidney beans (Rājmā in Hindi and Punjabi) are an integral part of the cuisine in northern region of India.

Phaseolus vulgaris, the common bean, is an herbaceous annual plant domesticated independently in ancient Mesoamerica and the Andes, and now grown worldwide for its edible bean, popular both dry and as a green bean. The leaf is occasionally used as a leaf vegetable, and the straw is used for fodder. Beans, squash and maize constituted the "Three Sisters" that provided the foundation of Native American agriculture.

Botanically, the common bean is classified as a dicotyledon. Beans are a legume and thus acquire their nitrogen through an association with rhizobia, a species of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. 18.3 million tonnes
of dry common beans and 6.6 million tonnes of green beans were grown worldwide in 2007.

The other major type of bean is the broad bean (Vicia faba), of which only 3.7 million tonnes were grown
in 2007. The commercial production of beans is well-distributed worldwide with countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, Oceania, South and North America all among the top bean growers. Brazil and India are the largest producers of dry beans while China produces, by far, the largest quantity of green beans, almost as much as the rest of the top ten growers combined.

How to germinate red kidney beans from dried seed.

Description

The common bean is a highly variable species with a long history. Bush varieties form erect bushes 20–60 centimeters (7.9–24 in) tall, while pole or running varieties form vines 2–3 meters (6 ft 7 in–9 ft 10 in) long. All varieties bear alternate, green or purple leaves, divided into three oval, smooth-edged leaflets, each 6–15 centimeters (2.4–5.9 in) long and 3–11 centimeters (1.2–4.3 in) wide. The white, pink, or purple flowers are about 1 cm long, and give way to pods 8–20 centimeters (3.1–7.9 in) long, 1–1.5 cm wide, green, yellow, black or purple in color, each containing 4–6 beans. The beans are smooth, plump, kidney-shaped, up to 1.5 cm long, range widely in color, and are often mottled in two or more colors.

Dry beans

Similar to other beans, the common bean is high in starch, protein and dietary fiber and is an excellent source of iron, potassium, selenium, molybdenum, thiamine, vitamin B6, and folic acid.

Dry beans will keep indefinitely if stored in a cool, dry place, but as time passes, their nutritive value and flavor degrade and cooking times lengthen. Dried beans are almost always cooked by boiling, often after having been soaked for several hours. While the soaking is not strictly necessary, it shortens cooking time and results in more evenly textured beans. In addition, discarding one or more batches of soaking water leaches out hard-to-digest complex sugars that can cause flatulence, though those who eat beans regularly rarely have difficulties with flatulence as intestinal microbes adjust. There are several methods including overnight soaking, and the power soak method, which is to boil beans for three minutes, then set them aside for 2–4 hours, then drain and discard the water and proceed with cooking. Common beans take longer to cook than most pulses: cooking times vary from one to four hours but are substantially reduced with pressure cooking.

In Mexico, Central America and South America, the traditional spice to use with beans is epazote, which is also said to aid digestion. In East Asia a type of seaweed, Kombu, is added to beans as they cook for the same purpose. Salt, sugar, and acidic foods like tomatoes may harden uncooked beans resulting in seasoned beans at the expense of slightly longer cooking times.

Dry beans may also be bought pre-cooked and canned as refried beans, or whole with water, salt, and sometimes sugar.

Green beans

Green beans (snap beans)Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy                             - 129 kJ (31 kcal)
Carbohydrates                 -     7 g
- Sugars                           -     1.4 g
- Dietary fiber                  -      3.4 g
Fat                                  -      0.1 g
Protein                            -      1.8 g
Vitamin A equiv              -         . 35 μg (4%)
Vitamin C                       -     16 mg (19%)
Calcium                          -     37 mg (4%)

There are three commonly known types of green beans: string or runner beans, stringless or French beans (depending on whether the pod has a tough, fibrous "string" running along its length), and snap beans, which may be round or have a thin flat pod that requires less cooking time. Compared to the dry beans, they provide less starch and protein, and more vitamin A and vitamin C. The green beans are often steamed, boiled, stir-fried, or baked in casseroles.

Shelling beans

Shell beans or shelling beans are beans removed from their pods before being cooked or dried. Common beans can be used as shell beans, but the term also refers to other species of beans whose pods are not typically eaten, such as lima beans, soybeans, peas, and fava beans. Fresh shell beans are nutritionally similar to dry beans but are prepared more like a vegetable, often being steamed, fried, or made into soups.

Popping beans

The nuña is an Andean subspecies, Phaseolus vulgaris subsp. nunas (formerly Phaseolus vulgaris (Nuñas Group)), with round multicolored seeds that resemble pigeon eggs. When cooked on high heat, the bean explodes, exposing the inner part, in the manner of popcorn and other puffed grains.

Toxicity

The toxic compound phytohaemagglutinin, a lectin, is present in many varieties of common bean but is especially concentrated in red kidney beans. Phytohaemagglutinin can be deactivated by cooking beans at 100 °C (212 °F) for ten minutes. However, the dry beans can initially be soaked for  at least 5 hours in water; the soaking water should be discarded.

The ten minutes at 100 °C (212 °F) is required to degrade the toxin, and is much shorter than the hours required to fully cook the beans themselves. However, lower cooking temperatures may have the paradoxical effect of potentiating the toxic effect of haemagglutinin. Beans cooked at 80 °C (176 °F) are reported to be up five times as toxic as raw beans.Outbreaks of poisoning have been associated with the use of slow cookers, the low cooking temperatures of which may be unable to degrade the toxin.

The primary symptoms of phytohaemagglutinin poisoning are nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Onset is from 1 to 3 hours after consumption of improperly prepared beans, and symptoms typically resolve within a few hours. Consumption of as few as four or five raw kidney beans may be sufficient to trigger symptoms.

Beans are high in purines, which are metabolized to uric acid. Uric acid is not itself considered a toxin, but it may promote the development or exacerbation of gout. For this reason, persons with gout are often advised to limit their consumption of beans.Uric acid is also an important antioxidant in humans and, according to cohort studies, might be neuroprotective in cases of multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.

Varieties

Many well-known bean varieties belong to this species, and none of the lists below are in any way exhaustive. Both bush and running (pole) varieties exist. The colors and shapes of pods and seeds vary tremendously.

Anasazi Beans

Anasazi Bean is a registered trademark  referring to a bean sometimes called Aztec bean, cave bean, New Mexico Appaloosa. It is a mottled red and white bean native to the North American Southwest and was made commercially viable by the trademark owner.


Black beans

The small, shiny black turtle bean is especially popular in Latin American cuisine, though it can also be found in Cajun and Creole cuisines of south Louisiana. It is often called simply the black bean (frijol negro, zaragoza, poroto negro, caraota o habichuela negra in Spanish, feijão preto in Portuguese), although this can cause confusion with other black beans.

The black turtle bean has a dense, meaty texture, which makes it popular in vegetarian dishes, such as the Mexican-American black bean burrito. It is a very popular bean in various regions of Brazil, and is used in the national dish, feijoada. It is also a main ingredient of Moros y Cristianos in Cuba, is a must-have in the typical gallo pinto of Costa Rica and Nicaragua, is a fundamental part of pabellón criollo in Venezuela, and is served in almost all of Latin America, as well as many Hispanic enclaves in the United States. The black turtle bean is also popular for making into soups. In Cuba, black bean soup is a traditional dish and it is served with white rice.

It is also common to keep the boiled water of these beans (which acquires a black coloring) and consume it as a soup with other ingredients for seasoning (known as sopa negra, black soup), as a broth (caldo de frijol, bean broth) or to season or color other dishes (aforementioned gallo pinto, for example).

Black turtle beans have recently been reported to be an extremely good source of nutritional antioxidants.

Black turtle bean varieties include:

Black Magic
Blackhawk
Domino
Nighthawk
Valentine
Zorro

Cranberry and borlotti beans

Cranberry beans originated in Colombia as the cargamanto. The bean is a medium-large, tan or hazelnut-colored bean, splashed with red/black to magenta streaks. A new cranberry bean variety, Crimson, is light tan and speckled maroon, and is also resistant to viruses and has a high yield.

Crimson is a new cranberry dry bean

Borlotti beans, also known as Roman beans or romano beans (not to be confused with Italian flat beans, a green bean also called "romano bean"), are a variety of cranberry bean bred in Italy to have a thicker skin. It is very popular in Italian, Portuguese and Greek cuisine.

Pinto beans look the same as cranberry and borlotti beans, but differ in taste.

Pink beans

Pink beans are small, oval-shaped beans, pale pink in color, also known by the Spanish name habichuelas rosadas. The Santa Maria pinquito (spanglish = pink and small(ito)), is commercially grown on the mesas above Santa Maria, California, and is a necessary ingredient in Santa Maria Style BBQ.

Pinto or mottled beans

The pinto bean (Spanish: frijol pinto, literally "speckled bean") is named for its mottled skin (compare pinto horse), hence it is a type of mottled bean. It is the most common bean in the United States and northwestern Mexico, and is most often eaten whole in broth or mashed and refried. Either whole or mashed, it is a common filling for burritos. The young pods may also be harvested and cooked as green pinto beans.

This is the bean most commonly used for refried beans (fresh or canned) and in many dishes. Rice and pinto beans served with cornbread or corn tortillas are often a staple meal where meat is unavailable; the amino acids in this combination make it a complete protein source. This variety is often used in chili con carne, although the kidney bean, black bean, and many others may also be used in other locales .

In the southeastern part of the United States, pinto beans were once a staple of the people, especially during the winter months. Some churches in rural areas still sponsor "pinto bean suppers" for social gatherings and fund raisers.

The alubia pinta alavesa, or the "Alavese pinto bean", is a red variety of the pinto bean that originated in Añana, a town and municipality located in the province of Álava, in the Basque Country of northern Spain. In October, the Feria de la alubia pinta alavesa (Alavese pinto bean fair) is celebrated in Pobes.

Pinto bean varieties include:

Burke
Othello
Maverick
Sierra

Studies have indicated pinto beans can help reduce cholesterol levels.





DO NOT EAT THE SPROUTS AS THEY ARE TOXIC!


Red kidney beans are prone to damage from slugs and snails so make sure that there is adequate protection against these pests as soon as the plants go outside.


When to harvest kidney beans

Allow the bean pods to dry as much as they can before the wet weather of autumn arrives. If they are not dry
enough before that time, pick them and allow them to dry off fully indoors. Once completely dry they can be stored or used for cooking.


Important!

Dried beans also contain toxins, so when cooking with dried beans they must be soaked overnight in cold water. Afterwards, rinse the beans thoroughly then boil them rapidly for 10 minutes before adding them with your other recipe ingredients.

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