Tuesday, December 6, 2011

Garlic Cultivation




Scientific classification
------------------------------
Kingdom            : Plantae
clade                  : Angiosperms
clade                  : Monocots
Order                 : Asparagales
Family                : Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily           : Allioideae
Genus                : Allium
Species              : A. sativum
Binomial name    : Allium sativum


The word "Garlic" comes from the Old English "Garleac" which means "Spear Leek". Garlic has a long history and it is used all over the world as one of the ingredients in food recipes. It not only adds flavor to our food but it also has many health benefits.
garlic field

The scientific name of garlic is "Allium Sativum" and it belongs to the family of onion. Garlic has been regarded as one of the nature’s wonder medicine. This is because of its natural antibiotic properties and antioxidants. It contains preventive anti-cancer compounds. Garlic has a very strong flavor and is often use as one of the ingredients in food cuisines.

Origin and major types

The ancestry of cultivated garlic is not definitively established. A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars", though it is thought to be descendent from the species Allium
flowering garlic

longicuspis, which grows wild in central and southwestern Asia. Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised. The "wild garlic", "crow garlic", and "field garlic" of Britain are members of the species Allium ursinum, Allium vineale, and Allium oleraceum, respectively. In North America, Allium
garlic mustard

vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense, known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion", are common weeds in fields.One of the best-known "garlics", the so-called elephant garlic, is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum), and not a true garlic. Single clove garlic (also called pearl or solo garlic) originated in the Yunnan province of China.

European garlic

Italian garlic PDO (Aglio Bianco Polesano)

There are a number of garlics with Protected Geographical Status in Europe; these include:

Aglio Bianco Polesano from Veneto, Italy (PDO)
Aglio di Voghiera from Ferrara, Emilia-Romagna, Italy (PDO)
Ail blanc de Lomagne from Lomagne in the Gascony area of France (PGI)
Ail de la Drôme from Drôme in France (PGI)
Ail rose de Lautrec a rose/pink garlic from Lautrec in France (PGI)
Ajo Morado de Las Pedroñeras a rose/pink garlic from Las Pedroñeras in Spain (PGI)

Varieties

While botanists classify garlic under the umbrella of the species, Allium sativum, there are also two main subspecies.


Ophioscorodon, or hard necked garlic, includes porcelain garlics, rocambole garlic, and purple stripe garlics.
Sativum, or soft necked garlic, includes artichoke garlic, silverskin garlic, and creole garlic.

Bulb garlic is available in many forms, including fresh, frozen, dried, fermented (black garlic) and shelf stable products (in tubes or jars).

Pearl or Solo garlic
solo or pearl garlic or single clove garlic

Single Clove Garlic / Solo Garlic is not much cultivated around the world and more costly.Where as multi
clove garlics are widely cultivated  and are available and relatively lower price .Single clove garlics are rarely  found .
solo or pearl garlic or single clove garlic

Not much known about this  variety . Being a rare variety this should be encouraged for cultivation around the world to make it popular .The place of origin of this variety is claimed to be  the Yunnan province in China.

Typically around 3 centimetres onwards in diameter, single clove garlic or solo garlic are white or purple in color . While it seems as if the flavor is stronger than normal garlic, it is actually quite mild and perhaps even slightly nutty. Some say it can also be used as a prophylactic for bird flu!

In  the high mountain area of Yunnan Province, it is grown with organic fertilizers without chemical pollution. The sizes are 3cm up or 3.5cm up. The harvest time is February to March every year. It is purple and white in color. It has good-looking appearance, unique flavour and prophylactic for bird flue. It has a strong fragrant taste compared with multi clove regular garlic. It also has a high nutrition content. Its price is higher than regular multi-clove garlic but those people who buy it simply love it. It is delicious!

Single Clove Garlic:



1) Size: 2.5-3.0cm, 3.0 - 3.5cm, 3.5 - 4.0cm, 4.0 - 4.5cm, 4.5 - 5.0cm
2) Supply period: March to June (fresh); July to February (cold storage)
3) Packing :100g/bag, 150g/bag, 200g/bag, 250g/bag, 500g/bag, 1kg/bag, 10kg/mesh bag,20kg/mesh bag,
    5kg/ctn, 10kg/ctn

Elephant garlic




































Scientific classification

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kingdom                                                      : Plantae
(unranked)                                                   : Angiosperms
(unranked)                                                   : Monocots
Order                                                          : Asparagales
Family                                                         : Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily                                                    : Allioideae
Genus                                                         : Allium
Species                                                       : A. ampeloprasum
Subspecies                                                  : A. ampeloprasum var. ampeloprasum
Trinomial name                                         : Allium ampeloprasum var. ampeloprasum 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------    


Elephant garlic  is a plant belonging to the onion genus. It is not a true garlic, but actually a variant of the species to which the garden leek belongs. It has a
elephant garlic flower


tall, solid, flowering stalk and broad, flat leaves much like those of the leek, but forms a bulb consisting of very large, garlic-like cloves. The flavor of these, while not exactly like garlic, is much more similar to garlic than to
elephant garlic plants

leeks. The flavor is milder than garlic, and much more palatable to some people than garlic when used raw as in salads.

elephant garlic flowers
elephant garlics
Elephant garlic or Allium ampeloprasum is a variety of garlic with very large cloves and a tender, mild, slightly sweet flavor. Some consumers enjoy elephant garlic because it can be eaten raw and used in cooking for a hint of garlic flavor without being overwhelming. Others turn their noses up at elephant garlic, claiming that it is too weak to be considered a true garlic. Many grocers stock elephant garlic when it is in season, and it is also very easy to grow at home.

Technically, elephant garlic is not garlic at all. It is actually a leek, although it looks distinctly like garlic since garlic is a member of the leek family. Unlike leeks, elephant garlic has been bred to producer larger edible cloves underground, with less of a focus on the green stalks of the plant. When allowed to fully mature,elephant garlic can develop cloves which are as big as cloves of regular garlic.

The large size tricks some consumers into thinking that elephant garlic will have a large flavor. In fact, the flavor is actually quite delicate and complex, but it is also very mild, without the biting burn associated with
leek plants looks similar as elephant garlic plants

true garlic. However, this mild flavor can be used to advantage, as elephant garlic is great raw in an assortment of foods, and it can be added to dishes at the last minute for a garlicky note.
harvested elephant garlics

Elephant garlic  has a shorter shelf life than other varieties such as the pungent American garlic, so it should be kept under refrigeration and used in a timely fashion.
flowering elephant garlic plants

To grow elephant garlic, plant out separated bulbs in the fall months. Garden supply stores often sell cloves specifically for planting, although garlic from a market can be used as well. After overwintering during the fall, the elephant garlic will produce small shoots in the early spring, and the heads of garlic will mature in the mid to late summer.

Cultivation



The mature bulb is broken up into cloves which are quite large and with papery skins and these are used for both culinary purposes and propagation. There are also much smaller cloves with a hard shell that occur on the outside of the bulb. These are often ignored, but if they are planted, they will the first year produce a non-flowering plant which has a solid bulb, essentially a single large clove. In their second year, this single clove will break up into many separate cloves. Elephant garlic is not generally propagated by seeds.

The plant, if left alone, will spread into a clump with many flowering heads. These are often left in flower gardens as an ornamental and to discourage pests.

Field Garlic


Field garlic (Allium oleraceum) is a bulbous perennial that grows wild in dry places in northern Europe, reaching 80cm in height.
Field garlic

It reproduces by seed, bulbs and by the production of small bulblets in the flower head (similarly to the Wild Onion Allium vineale).

Unlike A. vineale however, it is very rare with Field garlic to find flower-heads containing bulbils only.

In addition, the spathe in Field garlic is in two parts.

Field garlic is native to temperate Eurasia.

It is native to Britain and is found in dry, grassy places, usually steeply sloping and calcareous soils, and on open sunny banks in river floodplains.

It favours altitudes of 0-365m. A. oleraceum is scattered throughout England and very scattered in Wales, Scotland and Ireland. Erosion of coastal areas leads to a reduction in the available habitat for this species, leading to population declines.

This plant prefers partial or full exposure to sunlight.
Field Garlic tends to grow in slightly moist, heavy clay-like soil, although it will grow just fine in other soils.
This plant spreads quickly, much like a weed, and can be difficult to get rid of.

An easily grown plant, it prefers a sunny position in a light well-drained soil.
The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply.
Seed is rarely if ever produced in Britain.

The plant usually produces many small bulbils in the flowering head and these can spread themselves freely around the garden. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other.
Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Cultivation

Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. While sexual propagation of garlic is indeed possible, nearly all of the garlic in cultivation is propagated asexually, by planting individual cloves in the ground. In cold climates, cloves are planted in the fall, about six weeks before the soil freezes, and
garlic cultivation using polethene sheets

harvested in late spring. Garlic plants are usually very hardy, and are not attacked by many pests or diseases. Garlic plants are said to repel rabbits and moles. Two of the major pathogens that attack garlic are nematodes
garlic flowers 

and white rot disease, which remain in the soil indefinitely once the ground has become infected. Garlic also can suffer from pink root, a typically nonfatal disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red.

Garlic plants can be grown close together, leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature, and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. When selecting garlic for planting, it is important to pick large heads from
garlic field

which to separate cloves. Large cloves, along with proper spacing in the planting bed, will also improve head size. Garlic plants prefer to grow in a soil with a high organic material content, but are capable of growing in a wide range of soil conditions and pH levels.

There are different types or subspecies of garlic, most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the choice of type as garlic can be day-length sensitive. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates; softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator.
garlic field

Garlic scapes are removed to focus all the garlic's energy into bulb growth. The scapes can be eaten raw or cooked.


Harvesting of garlic


Garlic can be harvested when leaves starts becing brown .


Production trends of Garlic output in 2005

Garlic is grown globally, but China is by far the largest producer of garlic, with approximately 10.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) grown annually, accounting for over 77% of world output. India (4.1%) and South Korea (2%) follow, with Egypt and Russia (1.6%) tied in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown in every state except for Alaska) in sixth place (1.4%). This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered in Gilroy, California, which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world".


Top 10 garlic producers — 11 June 2008
-----------------------------------------------------
Country                      Production (tonnes) 
-----------------------------------------------------
China                                    12,088,000
India                                          645,000
South Korea                              325,000
Egypt                                         258,608
Russia                                        254,000
United States                             221,810
Spain                                         142,400
Argentina                                   140,000
Myanmar                                   128,000
Ukraine                                      125,000
---------------------------------------------
World                                    15,686,310


Uses

Culinary uses

Garlic being crushed using a garlic press

Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment.

The garlic plant's bulb is the most commonly used part of the plant. With the exception of the single clove types, garlic bulbs are normally divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves. Garlic cloves are used for consumption (raw or cooked) or for medicinal purposes. They have a characteristic pungent, spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking.

Other parts of the garlic plant are also edible. The leaves and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are sometimes eaten. They are milder in flavor than the bulbs,and are most often consumed while immature and still tender. Immature garlic is sometimes pulled, rather like a scallion, and sold as "green garlic". When green garlic is allowed to grow past the "scallion" stage, but not permitted to fully mature, it may produce a garlic "round", a bulb like a boiling onion, but not separated into cloves like a mature bulb.Additionally, the immature flower stalks (scapes) of the hardneck and elephant types are sometimes marketed for uses similar to asparagus in stir-fries.

Inedible or rarely eaten parts of the garlic plant include the "skin" and root cluster. The papery, protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant are generally discarded during preparation for most culinary uses, though in Korea immature whole heads are sometimes prepared with the tender skins intact. The root cluster attached to the basal plate of the bulb is the only part not typically considered palatable in any form.

Garlic is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions, including eastern Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, northern Africa, southern Europe, and parts of South and Central America. The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the differe, are common weeds in fields.One of the/tbod
y best-known . When green garlic is allowed to grow past the nt cooking methods. It is often paired with onion, tomato, or ginger. The parchment-like skin is much like the skin of an onion, and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb, coat the cloves by dribbling olive oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them, and roast them in an oven. Garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb, or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. In Korea, heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature; the resulting product, called black garlic, is sweet and syrupy, and is now being sold in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia.

Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic dishes, such as garlic bread, garlic toast, bruschetta, crostini and canapé.

Garlic being rubbed onto a slice of bread

Oils can be flavored with garlic cloves. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables, meats, breads and pasta.

In some cuisines, the young bulbs are pickled for three to six weeks in a mixture of sugar, salt, and spices. In eastern Europe, the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer.

Immature scapes are tender and edible. They are also known as "garlic spears", "stems", or "tops". Scapes generally have a milder taste than the cloves. They are often used in stir frying or braised like asparagus. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. The leaves are cut, cleaned, and then stir-fried with eggs, meat, or vegetables.

Mixing garlic with egg yolks and olive oil produces aioli. Garlic, oil, and a chunky base produce skordalia. Blending garlic, almond, oil, and soaked bread produces ajoblanco.

Garlic powder has a different taste from fresh garlic. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic, 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic.

Storag

Domestically, garlic is stored warm [above 18 °C (64 °F)] and dry to keep it dormant (so it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands called plaits or grappes. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator. Commercially, garlic is stored at 0 °C (32 °F), in a dry, low-humidity environment. Garlic will keep longer if the tops remain attached.

Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of Clostridium botulinum which causes the deadly botulism illness; refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Commercially prepared oils are widely available. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products. Two outbreaks of botulism related to garlic stored in oil have been reported.


Historical use

Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as when the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now .

Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in AD 510.

It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes , and, according to Pliny the Elder , by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) , and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century , recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique, six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today.

In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial . Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen , found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate . A similar practice of hanging garlic, lemon and red chilli at the door or in a shop to ward off potential evil, is still very common in India. According to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food.

To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny  advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk .

Medicinal use and health benefits

In in vitro studies, garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in vivo. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer. Garlic is used to prevent certain types of cancer, including stomach and colon cancers. In fact, countries where garlic is consumed in higher amounts, because of traditional cuisine, have been found to have a lower prevalence of cancer. Animal studies, and some early research studies in humans, have suggested possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals. Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits. Another study showed supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol. The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells (RBCs), a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.

A randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.According to Heart.org, "despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides... The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies". In an editorial regarding the initial report's findings, two physicians from Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, pointed out that there may "be effects of garlic on atherosclerosis specifically that were not picked up in the study".

Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregationand hyperlipidemia.

In 2007, the BBC reported Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold. This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs. The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.

Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has been shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus. People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician.

In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II. More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.

Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush. Garlic can be used as a disinfectant because of its bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal properties.

Garlic has been found to enhance thiamin absorption, and therefore reduces the likelihood for developing the thiamin deficiency beriberi.

In 1924, it was found to be an effective way to prevent scurvy, because of its high vitamin C content.

Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat Cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China. It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.

Garlic supplementation has been shown to boost testosterone levels in rats fed a high protein diet.

A 2010 double-blind, parallel, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, involving 50 patients whose routine clinical records in general practice documented treated but uncontrolled hypertension, concluded, "Our trial suggests that aged garlic extract is superior to placebo in lowering systolic blood pressure similarly to current first line medications in patients with treated but uncontrolled hypertension."

Other uses
The sticky juice within the bulb cloves is used as an adhesive in mending glass and porcelain in China.

Adverse effects and toxicology

Garlic is known for causing halitosis, as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell, which is caused by allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs[citation needed] (and from there to the mouth, causing bad breath) and skin, where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Studies have shown sipping milk at the same time as consuming garlic can significantly neutralize bad breath. Mixing garlic with milk in the mouth before swallowing reduced the odor better than drinking milk afterward. Plain water, mushrooms and basil may also reduce the odor; the mix of fat and water found in milk, however, was the most effective.

The green, dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic, produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lacks allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine.

In a rat study allicin was found to be an activator of TRPA1. The neurons released neurotransmitters in the spinal cord to generate pain signals and released neuropeptides at the site of sensory nerve activation, resulting in vasodilation, as well as inflammation. Allicin is released only by crushing or chewing raw garlic and cannot be formed from cooked garlic.

Some people suffer from allergies to garlic and other plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and, in rare cases, anaphylaxis. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyl disulfide, allylpropyldisulfide, allylmercaptan and allicin, all of which are present in garlic. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants, including onions, garlic, chives, leeks, shallots, garden lilies, ginger, and bananas.

It thins the blood (as does aspirin); this had caused very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements to be linked with an increased risk of bleeding, particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth, although culinary quantities are safe for consumption.

Several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes, including naturopathic uses and acne treatment, indicate care must be taken for these uses, usually testing a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic.On the basis of numerous reports of such burns, including burns to children, topical use of raw garlic, as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities, is discouraged. In particular, topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable. The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation, if any exist, are largely unknown, and no FDA-approved study has been performed. However, garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects, suggesting modest quantities of garlic pose, at worst, minimal risks to normal individuals. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort, sweating, dizziness, allergic reactions, bleeding, and menstrual irregularities. The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children.; some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic.

Garlic may interact with warfarin, antiplatelets, saquinavir, antihypertensives, calcium channel blockers, quinolone family of antibiotics such as Cipro,and hypoglycemic drugs, as well as other medications. Members of the alium family might be toxic to cats or dogs.Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats, particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations.

Garlic, rawNutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
------------------------------------------------------------

Energy                                       623 kJ (149 kcal)
Carbohydrates                          33.06 g
- Sugars                                       1.00g
- Dietary fiber                               2.1 g
Fat                                               0.5 g
Protein                                       6.39 g
- beta-carotene                             5 μg (0%)
Thiamine (vit. B1)                       0.2 mg (17%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2)                   0.11 mg (9%)
Niacin (vit. B3)                          0.7 mg (5%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)             0.596 mg (12%)
Vitamin B6                             1.235 mg (95%)
Folate (vit. B9)                              3 μg (1%)
Vitamin C                                31.2 mg (38%)
Calcium                                    181 mg (18%)
Iron                                           1.7 mg (13%)
Magnesium                                 25 mg (7%)
Phosphorus                               153 mg (22%)
Potassium                                 401 mg (9%)
Sodium                                       17 mg (1%)
Zinc                                         1.16 mg (12%)
Manganese                             1.672 mg
Selenium                                   14.2 μg
---------------------------------------------
Properties

When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, an antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). It has been claimed that it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur-containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, B vitamins, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and Maillard reaction products, which are not sulfur-containing compounds. Furthermore, a phytoalexin (allixin) was found, a nonsulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with antioxidant effects, antimicrobial effects, antitumor promoting effects, inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding, and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an antitumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA and DMBA initiated mice.Analogs of this compound have exhibited antitumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases.

The composition of the bulbs is approximately
                              84.09% water,
                              13.38% organic matter, and
                                1.53% inorganic matter,
while the leaves are
                              87.14% water,
                              11.27% organic matter, and
                                1.59% inorganic matter.

The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored in cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to react over time. Among the members of the onion family, garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products, making garlic much more potent than onions, shallots, or leeks. Although many humans enjoy the taste of garlic, these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism, deterring animals such as birds, insects, and worms from eating the plant.

A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odor component. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. This chemical opens thermotransient receptor potential channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin, thus mellowing its spiciness.

Because of its strong odor, garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". When eaten in quantity, garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized, forming allyl methyl sulfide. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. It is carried to the lungs and the skin, where it is excreted. Since digestion takes several hours, and release of AMS several hours more, the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time.

This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley. The herb is, therefore, included in many garlic recipes, such as pistou, persillade, and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. However, since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood, and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours, eating parsley provides only a temporary masking. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna.

Because of the AMS in the bloodstream, it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent, but no clinically reported evidence suggests it is actually effective.

Spiritual and religious perceptions

Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. According to Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions, there is an Islamic myth that considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden, garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right. In Europe, many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic, perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine. Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons, werewolves, and vampires. To ward off vampires, garlic could be worn, hung in windows, or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes.

In connection with the odor associated with garlic, Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate because the smell from the mouth will irritate the fellow worshippers.

In both Hinduism and Jainism, garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires. Some devout Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis.

A belief among some sections of Hindus is that when Devas and Asuras fought for nectar during churning of the ocean of milk (Samundar mathan) in the other world, two Asuras were able to get access to nectar and had some quantity in their mouths in stealthy ways. Knowing Asuras' foul play the God made a cuff on heads of those Asuras before they could swallow it and as a result nector fell down on the earth from their mouths in drops which later grew as garlic and that is why the vegetable has such wonderful medicinal properties.

In some Buddhist traditions, garlic - along with the other five "pungent spices" - is understood to stimulate sexual and aggressive drives to the detriment of meditation practice.


Nutritional Value of Garlic :

1. High in Manganese, Vitamin B6 and C.
2. Low in saturated fat, Sugar and Sodium.
3. High in Calcium, Phosphorus and Selenium
4. No Cholesterol

Though garlic is relatively safe to eat and use as medicinal property, certain precautions should be taken by people when using garlic or garlic supplements. People with digestive problems should be cautious about their intake of garlic as high doses can irritate the intestinal tract. It is always wise to check with your doctor.
There are garlic pills available in the market just in case one  does not want to eat raw garlic. But  some people may be allergic to garlic.


Garlic has been considered as one of the oldest medicinal herb. It has properties that can cure many ailments. Researchers and Scientists have been studying its health benefits for quite a long time.


Health Benefits of Garlic


1. The most common ailment such as cold or flu can be treated with garlic. You can consume raw, fresh,
    crushed garlic to give boost to your natural defence system in your body.

2. A study has shown that garlic helps in lowering cholesterol level in our body.

3. Garlic helps to relieve acidity and gas.

4. Garlic can reduce your High Blood Pressure by 5 to 10 percent. 2-3 garlic cloves a day is good.

5. Garlic promotes the well being of the heart by minimising the risks of heart attack or stroke.

6. Garlic helps to strengthen your body against allergies since it has antibacterial and anti-fungal properties.
    It can prevent and cure skin problems.

7. It thins the blood and helps us to prevent blood clots in our body.

8. Regular intake of garlic helps to lower the risk of colon cancer.

9. Garlic regulate the blood sugar levels by increasing the release of insulin in diabetics.

10. Garlic has been known to reduce inflammation such as Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis in
       people making it beneficial.

11. It is nutritious and rich in Vitamin B6.

12. Helps to expel intestinal parasites & worms from our body.
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