Monday, January 23, 2012

Grapes Cultivation

A grape is a non-climacteric fruit, specifically a berry, that grows on the perennial and deciduous woody vines of the genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten raw or they can be used for making jam, juice, jelly, vinegar, wine, grape seed extracts, raisins, molasses and grape seed oil.


The cultivation of the domesticated grape began 6,000-8,000 years ago in the Near East. Yeast, one of the earliest domesticated microorganisms, occurs naturally on the skins of grapes, leading to the innovation of alcoholic drinks such as wine. First traces of red wine are seen in ancient Armenia where apparently, to date, the oldest winery was found, dating to around 4,000 BCE. By the 9th century CE the city of Shiraz was

known to produce some of the finest wines in the Middle east. Thus it has been proposed that Syrah red wine is named after Shiraz, a city in Persia where the grape was used to make Shirazi wine. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics record the cultivation of purple grapes, and history attests to the ancient Greeks, Phoenicians and Romans growing purple grapes for both eating and wine production. Later, the growing of grapes spread to Europe, North Africa, and eventually North America.

Native purple grapes belonging to the Vitis genus proliferated in the wild across North America, and were a part of the diet of many Native Americans, but were considered by European colonists to be unsuitable for wine. The first Old World Vitis vinifera purple grapes were cultivated in California.


Grapes are a type of fruit that grow in clusters of 15 to 300, and can be crimson, black, dark blue, yellow, green, orange, and pink. "White" grapes are actually green in color, and are evolutionarily derived from the purple grape. Mutations in two regulatory genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins which are

responsible for the color of purple grapes. Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the larger family of polyphenols in purple grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines. Grapes are also used in some kinds of confectionery. Grapes are typically an ellipsoid shape resembling a prolate spheroid.


Yaquti Grapes production in 2008, Iran.

Most grapes come from cultivars of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia. Minor amounts of fruit and wine come from American and Asian species such as:
Vitis labrusca, the North American table and grape juice grapevines (including the concord cultivar), sometimes used for wine, are native to the Eastern United States and Canada.

Vitis riparia, a wild vine of North America, is sometimes used for winemaking and for jam. It is native to the entire Eastern U.S. and north to Quebec.

Vitis rotundifolia, the muscadines, used for jams and wine, are native to the Southeastern United States from Delaware to the Gulf of Mexico.

Vitis amurensis is the most important Asian species.

Distribution and production

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 75,866 square kilometres of the world are dedicated to grapes. Approximately 71% of world grape production is used for wine, 27% as fresh fruit, and 2% as dried fruit. A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be reconstituted for fruits canned "with no added sugar" and "100% natural". The area dedicated to vineyards is increasing by about 2% per year.

Concord is a variety of North American labrusca grape

The following table of top wine-producers shows the corresponding areas dedicated to grapes for wine making:

Country Area dedicated

Spain              11,750 km2
France              8,640 km2
Italy                  8,270 km2
Turkey              8,120 km2
United States    4,150 km2
Iran                  2,860 km2
Romania           2,480 km2
Portugal            2,160 km2
Argentina          2,080 km2
Chile                 1,840 km2
Australia           1,642 km2
Armenia            1,459 km2
Lebanon            1,122 km2

Top Ten Grapes Producers – 8 October 2009
Country Production (Tonnes) 
Italy                    8,519,418
China                  6,787,081
United States      6,384,090
France                6,044,900
Spain                  5,995,300
Turkey                3,612,781
Iran                     3,000,000
Argentina            2,900,000
Chile                   2,350,000
India                   1,667,700
World              67,221,000

There are no reliable statistics that break down grape production by variety. It is, however, believed that the most widely planted variety is Sultana, also known as Thompson Seedless, with at least 3,600 km2. (880,000 acres) dedicated to it. The second most common variety is Airén. Other popular varieties include Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Grenache, Tempranillo, Riesling and Chardonnay.

List of grape varieties

This list of grape varieties includes cultivated grapes, whether used for wine, or eating as a table grape, fresh or dried (raisin, currant, sultana).

The term grape variety actually refers to cultivars rather than botanical varieties according to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, because they are propagated by cuttings and may have unstable

reproductive properties. However, the term variety has become so entrenched in viticulture that any change to usage of the term cultivar is unlikely.

 Single species grapes 
 Vitis vinifera grapes (wine)
 Red grapes
 White grapes
 Vitis vinifera (wine and table)
 Red table grapes
 White table grapes
 Vitis labrusca (wine and table)
 Wine grapes
 Red table grapes
 Purple/Blue table grapes
 Vitis riparia (wine grape rootstock and hybridization source)
 Vitis rotundifolia (table and wine)
 Vitis rupestris
 Vitis aestivalis (wine)
 Vitis mustangensis (wine)

 Multispecies hybrid grapes 
 Vinifera hybrids (wine)
 Vinifera hybrids (table)
 Non-vinifera hybrids (table and wine)
 Non-vinifera hybrids (rootstock)

Commercially cultivated grapes can usually be classified as either table or wine grapes, based on their intended method of consumption: eaten raw (table grapes) or used to make wine (wine grapes). While almost all of them belong to the same species, Vitis vinifera, table and wine grapes have significant differences, brought about through selective breeding. Table grape cultivars tend to have large, seedless fruit (see below) with relatively thin skin. Wine grapes are smaller, usually seeded, and have relatively thick skins (a desirable characteristic in winemaking, since much of the aroma in wine comes from the skin). Wine grapes also tend to be very sweet: they are harvested at the time when their juice is approximately 24% sugar by weight. By comparison, commercially produced "100% grape juice", made from table grapes is usually around 15% sugar by weight.

Seedless grapes

Although grape seeds contain many nutrients, some consumers choose seedless grapes; seedless cultivars now make up the overwhelming majority of table grape plantings. Because grapevines are vegetatively propagated by cuttings, the lack of seeds does not present a problem for reproduction. It is, however, an issue for breeders, who must either use a seeded variety as the female parent or rescue embryos early in development using tissue culture techniques.

There are several sources of the seedlessness trait, and essentially all commercial cultivators get it from one of three sources: Thompson Seedless, Russian Seedless, and Black Monukka, all being cultivars of Vitis vinifera. There are currently more than a dozen varieties of seedless grapes. Several, such as Einset Seedless, Reliance and Venus, have been specifically cultivated for hardiness and quality in the relatively cold climates of northeastern United States and southern Ontario.

An offset to the improved eating quality of seedlessness is the loss of potential health benefits provided by the enriched phytochemical content of grape seeds .


In most of Europe, dried grapes are referred to as "raisins" or the local equivalent. In the UK, three different varieties are recognized, forcing the EU to use the term "Dried vine fruit" in official documents.

A raisin is any dried grape. While raisin is a French loanword, the word in French refers to the fresh fruit; grappe  refers to the bunch .

A currant is a dried Zante Black Corinth grape, the name being a corruption of the French raisin de Corinthe (Corinth grape). Currant has also come to refer to the blackcurrant and redcurrant, two berries unrelated to grapes.

A sultana was originally a raisin made from Sultana grapes of Turkish origin (known as Thompson Seedless in the United States), but the word is now applied to raisins made from either white grapes, or red grapes which are bleached to resemble the traditional sultana.

French Paradox

Comparing diets among Western countries, researchers have discovered that although the French tend to eat higher levels of animal fat, surprisingly the incidence of heart disease remains low in France. This phenomenon has been termed the French Paradox, and is thought to occur from protective benefits of regularly consuming red wine. Apart from potential benefits of alcohol itself, including reduced platelet aggregation and vasodilation, polyphenols (e.g., resveratrol) mainly in the grape skin provide other suspected health benefits, such as:

Alteration of molecular mechanisms in blood vessels, reducing susceptibility to vascular damage
Decreased activity of angiotensin, a systemic hormone causing blood vessel constriction that would elevate blood pressure

Increased production of the vasodilator hormone, nitric oxide (endothelium-derived relaxing factor)

Although adoption of wine consumption is not recommended by some health authorities, a significant volume of research indicates moderate consumption, such as one glass of red wine a day for women and two for men, may confer health benefits. Emerging evidence is that wine polyphenols like resveratrol provide physiological benefit whereas alcohol itself may have protective effects on the cardiovascular system.

Grape phytochemicals such as resveratrol (a polyphenol antioxidant), have been positively linked to inhibiting any cancer, heart disease, degenerative nerve disease, viral infections and mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease.

Protection of the genome through antioxidant actions may be a general function of resveratrol. In laboratory studies, resveratrol bears a significant transcriptional overlap with the beneficial effects of calorie restriction in heart, skeletal muscle and brain. Both dietary interventions inhibit gene expression associated with heart and skeletal muscle aging, and prevent age-related heart failure.

Resveratrol is the subject of several human clinical trials, among which the most advanced is a one year dietary regimen in a Phase III study of elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease.

Synthesized by many plants, resveratrol apparently serves antifungal and other defensive properties. Dietary resveratrol has been shown to modulate the metabolism of lipids and to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoproteins and aggregation of platelets.

Resveratrol is found in wide amounts among grape varieties, primarily in their skins and seeds which, in muscadine grapes, have about one hundred times higher concentration than pulp. Fresh grape skin contains about 50 to 100 micrograms of resveratrol per gram.

 Anthocyanins tend to be the main polyphenolics in purple grapes whereas flavan-3-ols (i.e. catechins) are the more abundant phenolic in white varieties. Total phenolic content, a laboratory index of antioxidant strength, is higher in purple varieties due almost entirely to anthocyanin density in purple grape skin compared to absence of anthocyanins in white grape skin. It is these anthocyanins that are attracting the efforts of scientists to define their properties for human health. Phenolic content of grape skin varies with cultivar, soil composition, climate, geographic origin, and cultivation practices or exposure to diseases, such as fungal infections.

Red wine may offer health benefits more so than white because potentially beneficial compounds are present in grape skin, and only red wine is fermented with skins. The amount of fermentation time a wine spends in contact with grape skins is an important determinant of its resveratrol content. Ordinary non-muscadine red wine contains between 0.2 and 5.8 mg/L, depending on the grape variety, because it is fermented with the skins, allowing the wine to absorb the resveratrol. By contrast, a white wine contains lower phenolic contents because it is fermented after removal of skins.

Wines produced from muscadine grapes may contain more than 40 mg/L, an exceptional phenolic content.In muscadine skins, ellagic acid, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, and trans-resveratrol are major phenolics. Contrary to previous results, ellagic acid and not resveratrol is the major phenolic in muscadine grapes.

The flavonols syringetin, syringetin 3-O-galactoside, laricitrin and laricitrin 3-O-galactoside are also found in purple grape but absent in white grape.

Since the 1980s, biochemical and medical studies have demonstrated significant antioxidant properties of grape seed oligomeric proanthocyanidins. Together with tannins, polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids, these seed constituents display inhibitory activities against several experimental disease models, including cancer, heart failure and other disorders of oxidative stress.

Grape seed oil from crushed seeds is used in cosmeceuticals and skincare products for many perceived health benefits. Grape seed oil is notable for its high contents of tocopherols (vitamin E), phytosterols, and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, oleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid.

Concord grape juice

Commercial juice products from Concord grapes have been applied in medical research studies, showing potential benefits against the onset stage of cancer, platelet aggregation and other risk factors of atherosclerosis, loss of physical performance and mental acuity during aging and hypertension in humans.

Grape diseases
1 Bacterial diseases
2 Fungal diseases
3 Miscellaneous diseases and disorders
4 Nematodes, parasitic
5 Phytoplasma, Virus and viruslike diseases

Bacterial diseases

The Glassy-winged sharpshooter is the primary carrier of Pierce's disease.Bacterial diseases
Bacterial blight (bacterial necrosis) Xylophilus ampelinus = Xanthomonas ampelina
Crown gall Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Pierce's disease Xylella fastidiosa

Fungal diseases

The effects of Bird's eye (or Anthracnose) rot.

Botrytis or "Noble rot".

The effects of downy mildew on a grape leaf.

Powdery mildew on grapes.Fungal diseases
Alternaria rot Alternaria alternata
Angular leaf scorch
Pseudopezicula tetraspora

Phialophora-type [anamorph]
Angular leaf spot
Mycosphaerella angulata
Cercospora brachypus [anamorph]
Anthracnose and bird's-eye rot
Elsinoe ampelina
Sphaceloma ampelinum [anamorph]
Armillaria root rot (shoestring root rot)
Armillaria mellea

Rhizomorpha subcorticalis [anamorph]
Aspergillus rot Aspergillus niger
Botrytis (Grey Rot or Noble Rot) Botrytis cinerea

Miscellaneous diseases and disordersMiscellaneous diseases and disorders
Berry rot Yeasts
Black measles Presumably toxins from wood-rotting fungi; see Wood rot (decay)
Chlorosis Iron deficiency

Esca (Apoplexy) Presumably toxins from wood-rotting fungi; see Wood rot (decay)
Fasciation Genetic disorder
Little leaf Zinc deficiency
Oxidant stipple Ozone

Rupestris speckle Physiological disorder
Stem necrosis (water berry, grape peduncle necrosis) Physiological disorder

Nematodes, parasiticNematodes, parasitic
Tylenchulus semipenetrans
Dagger, American
Xiphinema americanum
Xiphinema spp.
Xiphinema index
Pratylenchus spp.
Pratylenchus vulnus
Longidorus spp.
Paratylenchus hamatus
Rotylenchulus spp.
Criconemella xenoplax
Meloidogyne arenaria
Meloidogyne hapla
Meloidogyne incognita
Meloidogyne javanica
Helicotylenchus spp.
Paratrichodorus christiei
Tylenchorhynchus spp.

Phytoplasma, Virus and viruslike diseasesVirus and viruslike diseases
Alfalfa mosaic Alfalfa mosaic virus
Arabis mosaic Arabis mosaic virus
Artichoke Italian latent Artichoke Italian latent virus
Asteroid mosaic Undetermined, viruslike

Bois noir (black wood disease) phytoplasma
Bratislava mosaic Bratislava mosaic virus
Broad bean wilt Broad bean wilt virus
Corky bark Grapevine Virus B
Enation Undetermined, viruslike

Fanleaf degeneration (infectious degeneration and decline) Grapevine fanleaf virus
Flavescence dorée MLO
Fleck (Marbrure) Undetermined, viruslike
Grapevine Bulgarian latent Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus
Grapevine chrome mosaic Grapevine chrome mosaic virus
Grapevine yellows phytoplasma

Leafroll Closterovirus-associated
Peach rosette mosaic virus decline Peach rosette mosaic virus
Petunia asteroid mosaic Petunia asteroid mosaic virus
Raspberry ringspot Raspberry ringspot virus

Rupestris stem pitting Undetermined, viruslike
Shoot necrosis Undetermined, viruslike
Sowbane mosaic Sowbane mosaic virus
Strawberry latent ringspot Strawberry latent ringspot virus
Tobacco mosaic Tobacco mosaic virus

Tobacco necrosis Tobacco necrosis virus
Tobacco ringspot virus decline Tobacco ringspot virus
Tomato black ring Tomato black ring virus

Tomato ringspot virus decline Tomato ringspot virus
Vein mosaic Undetermined, viruslike
Yellow speckle Viroid



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